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Keywords: A STUDY ON THE COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION AND ITS EFFECT ON NIGERIA
This research presents the results of the study of the colonial administration and the effects it has on Nigeria. The population for the study consists of 100 people which were randomly selected, Data were gathered using a self -constructed questionnaire and the result gotten was analyzed using the simple percentage method. The validity and reliability of instrument were ascertained. Data analyzed from the research reveals that about 77.7% of the total respondents sampled also agrees that the colonial administration has an effect on the present infrastructural development in Nigeria, therefore the study recommends that the present administration should adopts some of the principals of the British and other developed countries for better administration and development in Nigeria and as well for a better practice of democracy in Nigeria
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
1.8 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.2 RESESEARCH DESIGN
3.3 STUDY POPULATION
3.4 SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.5 DATA FOR THE STUDY: INSTRUMENTATION
3.6 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 DATA PRESENTPRESENTATATION AND ANALYSIS
4.2 DATA ANALYSIS
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS
5.2 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.4 SUGGESTION FOR FURTHER STUDIES
1.1 Background of the Study
In the 19th century colonialism was actually a way of life for the developed countries in Europe to superintend over African states, cities and kingdoms. After the partition of Africa in 1884 what is today called Nigeria became a British territory and for almost a century Nigeria was colonized by Britain. The key objectives of British colonialism included the opening up of the territory to British trade and commerce through diplomacy and where resistance was met military force became inevitable, the enforcement of the abolition of slave trade and other forms of illegal business activities and the maintenance of law and order in the society. Lagos was annexed in 1861; other areas like the southern and northern parts of Nigeria were systematically ‘conquered’ and administrative structures set over them. Nigeria had three partitions: the Lagos colony, the Southern and Northern protectorates with administrative centers at Lagos, Calabar and Kano. By 1914 the colony of Lagos, and the protectorates of Southern and Northern Nigeria were amalgamated into what is today called the Federal Republic of Nigeria. Lord Lugard was the first Governor- General. To administer the new country, the British colonialists adopted the system of indirect rule which was earlier used successfully in the Northern protectorate. According to Duke (2010:66) indirect rule involved the use of influential and resourceful members of the various communities who were made warrant chiefs and native political agents with mandates or warrants which empowered them to obtain the cooperation of the natives for the furtherance of the objectives of colonialism. The warrant chiefs were to collect taxes, project the system of colonialism, enforce law and order and, where necessary, arrest and detain those that were not ready to cooperate with them. Those who were arrested were tried in the colonial master’s kangaroo courts. The warrant chiefs were also given mandates to confiscate Nigerian goods that were regarded as contrabands and, where necessary, arrest and prosecute Nigerian business men and women who traded in Nigerian, goods that were banned by their British masters. Duke (2010) appraised the colonial rule this way: Lord Lugard built a system which blended the British-style machinery of government with a grassroots administrative instrument in the form of a hybrid strategy that combined British official at the top of the executive, legislative and judiciary wings of government on the one hand and the native chiefs and prominent members of the local society at the lower rung of the ladder on the other hand. At this point, the administrative style of the British was being insinuated into the governance of the Nigerian state, and it became the main influence on the local way of organizing things politically, socially and economically. It is in this way that political domination of the society, through colonization permeated government, trade, religion and the social life of the peoples of Nigeria, with structural and attitudinal implications for the existing public and private organizations. The stiff conditions of colonialism also had implications for the application, cultivation and development of contemporary management practice, as the existing institutions, particularly those by the state, had to operate within the ambit of the rigid style preferred by the British colonialists. Colonialism essentially became the tool that was deployed in relegating and decimating the local institution and management practices while these were supplanted with western-style administrative structures that were invariably regarded as superior to the indigenous ones Duke(2010)
Colonial administration in Nigeria created an opportunity for partnership between Nigeria and Britain. It introduced good governance structure as it partly succeeded in transforming native customs and institutions such as improvement in medical care, education, infrastructure and administrative reforms. The administration noted the unity of Nigeria despite the diverse nature of her peoples and also recognized the strength of the merit principle in the practice of representative bureaucracy in Nigeria. The administration also recognized ethnic regionalism existing among the north, southwest and east and in the colonial administrative practice; the indirect rule policy laid the foundation for the acceptance of peoples of the three regions as one. Bureaucratic inequalities among the three regions were the basis for recruitment policies from colonial to post-colonial administrative periods. Regionalism was entrenched during colonial rule as economic structures such as the marketing boards were regionalized and regional parliaments were also introduced. Meritocracy was not abandoned during colonial era as the economic and political structures recognized the importance of merit in recruitment. The problem connected with colonial bureaucracy was that of difficulty to remove the ethnic structures. (Barnes 1997:223; Graham, 1966; Adamu, 1973) cited in Mustapha (2006:8). Okeke (1992:23) cited in Mustapha (2008:8) also provides educational benefits connected with early contacts of southerners with Europeans. Thus, in 1947, the South had 13,473 primary schools with 2,343,317 pupils while the North had 2080 schools and185, 484 pupils and this explains a gap in secondary school leavers.
By the 1950s, British colonial administration in Nigeria started to pave the way for localism of the Nigerian civil service which was achieved in 1960.The vacuum created in the administration of the Nigerian Federal Civil Service with the departure of colonial administrators meant that competent Nigerian administrators had to be placed in prominent positions in the Federal Civil Service. The quota system in Nigeria aimed at representation of states in federal institutions and dates back to management of the military by colonial administration when its lower echelons were occupied by ethnic minority groups from the North. In 1958, the North had 50% of entrants to the Nigerian army and 25% went to the East and West (Adekanye, 1989:232) cited in Mustapha (2006:33). The Nigerian civilian government of Balewa applied merit for recruitment of indigenous corps officers that took over from the British officers (Miners 1971:97-116) cited in Mustapha (2006; 33). Mustapha (2006:34) notes that the military quota was later put in abeyance but later appeared into the main stream of nation-building process under the 1979 Constitution when quota was based on state. He adds that quota system introduced into the educational system comprises academic merit, educationally less developed states, catchment area and discretion by operators of respective institutions.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Slave labor was the prime commodity of international trade between Nigerian state-systems and Europe up to the middle of the 19th century. The trade, according to Agi (1998), disrupted and depleted population, stunted development of productive forces, and undermined the normal patterns of growth of the state-system. Slave trade was later abolished and there was a great need for European merchants to diversify into new areas of trade. The middle of the 19th century saw various European companies struggling to have a foot-hole in West Africa and in particular the lower Niger Delta. One of the reasons for the annexation of Lagos in 1861 by Britain was to gain monopoly over trade in the Niger Delta. Initially, Britain merely encouraged trade under protection – the establishment of political authority over Nigeria by trading companies for effective operation and as a weapon for competition against other European companies. Important British firms merged in 1879 into United African Company (UAC), which was later chartered by the British colonial government as the Royal Niger Company. The company signed a treaty with the local chiefs which gave the company, monopoly in trade matters over the Niger Delta. By 1899 the same British Government revoked the charter partly because of the over bearing attitude of the company toward Nigerians in its area of operation and its obsession with monopolizing trade in the area.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this research if to find out the effect of the British colonial administration on Nigeria; specifically the study intends to:
1. Find out the impact of colonial administration on Nigeria economy
2. Investigate the effect of colonial administration on the present political administration in Nigeria
3. Find out the effect of colonial administration on the relationship of Nigeria with other economies of the world.
1.4 Research Question
The following research question are formulated to guide this study
1. What is the impact of colonial administration on the present Nigeria economy
2. What are the effect of colonial administration on the present political administration in Nigeria
3. What effect does colonial administration has on the relationship of Nigeria with other economies of the world.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will expose every reader to the impact of the colonial rule has on the economy, the positive and the negative effect of colonial administration on our present political system. This research will also open the eyes of our government at various level to some policies that are to be cancelled and those we need back to make our economy great, and lastly this research work will serve as a guide to other researchers that will embark on the same research.
1.6 Scope of the study
This study will cover the impact and effects of colonial administration on present Nigeria, the political administration and the effects it has on the development of Nigeria and on our relationship with other economics in the world.
1.7 Limitation of the Study
The challenge of finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study.
Keywords: A STUDY ON THE COLONIAL ADMINISTRATION AND ITS EFFECT ON NIGERIA