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Keywords: A SURVEY OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEMS AMONGST GRADUATE OF INSTITUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING
In this research, it is assumed that unemployment is a factor inherent in the nation’s economic system, first because intentionally or unintentionally the policy-makers do not deliberately resort to measures capable of reducing unemployment to acceptable level.
This research is concerned with wags and means of denitrifying the causes and measures of curbing the problem created by unemployment. To do this, this research will specifically investigate the incidence of unemployment among graduates of institution of higher learning in Enugu urban and to determine what factors are responsible for or that affect unemployment.
Ten close and open ended questionnaire were administered to the respondents. The data generated from the questionnaires were subjected to statistical analysis. The result of the analysis included the following findings.
· That there is acute problem of graduate unemployment in Enugu urban.
· That our educational system has not been well planned as to produce professionals in all fields of human endeavour.
· That hoarding of jobs for undergraduate while the graduates are roaming the street could not solve the problem of unemployment
· That dislike to some graduate to work in rural areas is a factor to graduate unemployment.
· That government has not addressed itself to the problems of graduate unemployment.
Having established the fact that graduate unemployment in Enugu urban, it becomes pertinent at this time or juncture to map out some recommendations to curb the ugly trend.
1) Proper educational and development policies
2) Discouraging the employment of unqualified candidates for exiting jobs.
3) Establishment of more industries to absorb our graduates.
4) High priority should be assigned to the development of rural areas and
5) Finally, career counseling and skill oriented education are positive solutions towards solving graduate unemployment problem in Enugu urban.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Nigeria is a country passing through multiple transition, form the period of colonialism to independence, from illiteracy to literacy, subsistence agriculture to monetary economy, rural life to urban cosmopolitan life, form the day of employment to the days of mass unemployment. The time and time again throughout the human history. Year after year in Nigeria, the increasing number of graduates joining the labour market keeping rising geometrically and any hope for them to secure jobs looks pessimistic. The tempo of economic development does not keep pace with the rate of educational advancement. That a developing country should suffer from surplus labour is hardly surprising, but generally, unemployment is one thing and graduate unemployment is another. Unemployment has in all it’s ramification come to stay with us sine the era of oil boom which has unfortunately turned to our doom.
According to Daily Star, June 30 1986, unemployment is descried as a situation where there are few jobs to go round the great number of people wiling to work”. Here, it could be both educated and uneducated people in the country. Graduates unemployment has became some of the basic economic social and political problems facing so many states in Nigeria recently. The graduates in this context are generally the school leavers from our post primary and higher schools of learning. This pitiable “labour forces” who are left redundant are ever ready to put in their best services in any kind of jobs, but would not be called upon to do so because of the situation in the country.
In Enugu metropolis, there hs been a persistent increase in the number of unemployed graduates of institutions of higher learning. It is a problem that has consistently forced itself on the minds of different people in different ages. It is time we redressed our mind sincerely to the issue of graduate unemployment. The past government officials in the state had failed to give an accurate employment figure of the labour force available and this has perpetuated to pose some dangerous threats to the socio-economic stability of the state than usual.
On this note, therefore, it becomes imperative to give a brief definition of unemployment. According to Nigeria Statesman May 28, 1986, “Unemployment connotes the scarcity of job both in public and private sectors”. Also according to Weekly Star, August, 17 1986 “unemployment is the state of being unemployed” it further describes a person as unemployed when despite his ability and willingness to work is jobless. It is worthwhile to mention that all mentally and physically incapacities people are excluded. The researcher intended to concretize her ideas on those employment resulting from an unusual rise in the number of jobless graduate. This may be traceable to mismanagement of productive resources, immobility of labour between jobs, economic crisis like oil doom etc. especially in our predominately capitalist economy.
Onsite unlike in the past, graduates of schools of higher learning now roam the streets and motor parks in search of non-existing job opportunities and this has created immeasurable number of social and economic problems in the states quo of the society. This problems therefore, is of staggering magnitude because idleness influences all our actions and designs. It corrupts the graduates and is the bane of the middle ages. This research is also intended to find out the root causes of the increasing number of unemployed graduates.
It is also inteneded to study in detail the past effect by both the pesent and past governments to pave out the predicament. It is of paramount importance to stress that no other economic problem needed more immediate attention than finding job for the growing number of unemployed graduates.
In he light of this problems, the former Head of State and Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces General Sani Abacha in his 1st October, 1995 broadcast lifted the ban on employment. There is no doubt that the country has witnessed an upsurge in crime such as drug addiction and sophisticated armed robberies while broken homes, malnutrition and many other social vices are on the increase too.
Other factors that contributed to this situation also remain an integral part of this research. Such factors include the expansion of the existing schools and establishment of new schools without a collateral increase in industries to absorb produced graduates, the behaviour of graduate themselves towards jobs like farming construction of roads, bridges, school taxi cars and also the over-dependence of a mono-export-oriented economy etc. the efforts of the previous government in areas of infusion of skill-orientation in educational scheme will be scrutinized in order to have a balanced analysis. Did the government evolves stringent measures aimed at eradicating problem of unemployment in the state or did they apply the myopic machineries which appealed to policy makers because of case or execution?
The answer to this question with relevance to the historical background of Enugu urban requires meticulous evaluation in order to find a lasting solution.
The researcher will therefore, use questionnaire and review of past work in the same direction.
Most regrettably, however, there is scarcity of domestic data relating to the number of unemployed graduate of school of higher learning.
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
The unabated increase in the rate of unemployment among the youth, with particular emphasis on higher institution graduate has been a source of concern to the entire nation. Moreso, being aware of the social vices that this situation could result it makes sit more disabusing. This situation is a delima when we consider many policies, and legislation so far put in place by the government to cub this mince and how ineffective they have been as an instrument to reduce unemployment. The researcher having considered the above and decided to study the under listed problems with the view to x-raying then and possibly proffering lasting solutions to them.
1) The increase in the rate of unemployment amongst higher institution graduate not withstanding that the federal government of Nigeria have lifted embargo on employment.
2) The cream of he university graduate we have today includes those who have studied in very essential field which before now was not so. Nevertheless they suffer unemployment.
3) The increase in eh scope of private sector participation which should result I the increase in employment of university graduate has not been true in our situation.
4) The federal government recently increased the capital base of the bank of industry so as to allow more graduate to participate in the federal government graduate loan scheme, with the aim of being self employed, but this has not yielded any meaningful result or reduced the unemployment toll.
1.3 OBJECTIVE / PURPOSE OF STUDY
This research aimed at identifying whether t here is problem of graduate unemployment of higher schools in Enugu metropolis. If the answer to the above is positive then, where it is shown to be in existence and at what magnitude and class of graduates find it difficult to secure employment?
Having know the class, this research would also delve into knowing the impact and effect it has on the government and private enterprises generally.
All these and many more will be effectively tackled in the course of the study and proffer solution to the problem in order to make a fruitful recommendation. The study will enable students in this field to make further research on the topic being treated. The recommendations there in will also help the government to find ways to alleviating unemployment problems.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
Owing to the down turn in the economic fortunes of this country over the years, the Nigerian graduates have lost their pride of place. Their status in the society has continued to dwindle.
Today, it is sheer mirage for fresh graduates to dream of the good things of life. They are made to understand and accept that the graduates, unemployment should be seen as a passing phase in the history of the nation. It is very doubtful if the much desired change in the near future will bring us anything.
Therefore, this study is aimed at showing how these problems of unemployment among the graduates of institutions of higher learning could be eradicated.
It is desirable to create a new forum in which the government plays a dominant role and actively promotes private enterprises, establishes new enterprises with a centrally directed mobilization of resources towards the definite objectives of solving the graduate problem. One makes hold to add that in choosing their course of studies, they should bear in mind that times have changed. No more straight jacket thinking. She should would excel in.
The solution to this national malaise lies in turnaround or direction on the economy.
1.5 SCOPE OF STUDY
The study on the problem of graduate unemployment in institution of higher learning is such that would have taken her to different parts of the country. However, as a result of financial problems and more importantly the time factor she will be limiting this study tot here local government areas in Enugu Urban metropolises. They are Enugu North, Enugu East and Enugu West Local Government Councils.
Due to the nature of topic, the researcher limits the respondents to unemployed graduates and some managerial.
1.6 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. How is the current educational system serving our societal needs?
2. Why then are the educated unemployed?
3. Why is it that so many students still rush in search of education when they know that there is unemployment galore?
4. How for has the government address itself to the problems of graduate unemployment galore?
5. By what means could the graduate unemployment be eradicated?
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
UNEMPLOYMENT: This means involuntary idleness. A person is described as unemployed when, despite his ability and willingness to work is jobless.
INTENTIONALLY: Done on purpose
GRADUATE: One who finished a course of study at a university or polytechnics.
DEFICIENCY: Not perfect, lacking something
RESPONDENTS: People given answers to questions.
PERSISTENT: Continues steadily in a course of action inspite of difficulty.
F: Represent the sum of suggestions (frequency).
Keywords: A SURVEY OF THE UNEMPLOYMENT PROBLEMS AMONGST GRADUATE OF INSTITUTION OF HIGHER LEARNING