This study, “CONSTRUCTION OF UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY” contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
Keywords: CONSTRUCTION OF UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY
Uninterruptible power supplies (UPS) are used to provide power when regular utility power is unavailable. Although they are commonly used for providing power in remote locations or emergencies, this is not because they are the same as auxiliary power units, emergency power units or standby generators.
Unlike the aforementioned power sources, UPS provides an immediate and continuous supply of power to a device, hence protecting it from power interruption and allowing time for auxiliary or emergency powers, to kick in equipment to be safely shut down or utility power restored.
The major aim of this was to design a system which will be able to convert battery voltage(12v) to 220v, which is equivalent to wall outlet and secondly able to charge the battery.
The chapter one of this work, gives the over-view of UPS, it’s importance, uses, and application and some of its special features like its ability to correct frequency instability and many more.
Secondly, this work dealt with all components used in the construction of the device, there working condition and uses. Some basic abstract phenomenon were also treated like wave forms and electronic switching.
The chapter three, basically dealt on all electrical measuring instrument used in and on the device, how they are used, why and where.
The fourth chapter explains how the components where assembled into section and the sectional connection used to form the device.
The last chapter is a simple conclusion with honest recommendation.
TABLE OF CONTENT
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
1.2 SCOPE OF THIS PROJECT
1.3 AVAILABILITY OF DESIGN MATERIALS
2.1 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 WHAT IS A UPS? –
2.2.2 MODIFIED SINE WAVE
2.2.4 TRUE SNE WAVE –
2.4.2 ELECTROLYTIC CAPACITOR
2.4.3 PLASTIC FILM, CERAMIC NAD MONOLITHIC
2.5.1 MOUNTING A DIODE
2.5.2 CHARACTERISTICS CURVES OF A DIODE
2.5.3 IDEAL DIODE
2.5.4 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE
2.5.5 DIODES AS RECTIFIERS
126.96.36.199 HALF-WAVE RECTIFIER
188.8.131.52 FULL-WAVE, CENTER-TAP RECTIFIE
2.6.1 TRANSISTOR AS A SWIRCH
184.108.40.206 SUPER-HIGH INPUT IMPEDANCE
220.127.116.11. SETBACKS IN MOSFETS
18.104.22.168 ITS FLEXIBILITY
2.7 OPTO-COUPLER –
2.7.1 OPTO-COUPLER CHARACTERISTICS
2.7.2 ITS INPUT
2.7.3 ITS OUTPUT
2.7.4 ITS OPERATING MODE
2.8 THE SG3524 INTEGRATED CIRCUIT
2.8.1 OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF SG3524
3.1 ELECTRONIC WORKBENCH
3.2 GALVANOMETER –
4.0 DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION METHODS
4.1 COMPLETE CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF A UPS
4.2 STAGE BY STAGE DESIGN
4.2.1 OSCILLATOR SECTION
4.2.2 DRIVER/SWITCHING SECTION
4.2.3 THE OUTPUT SECTION
4.2.4 THE CHANGEOVER SECTION
4.2.5 THE LOW BATTERY CUT-OFF SECTION
4.3 COMPONENT JUSTIFICATION
4.3.2 SG3524 OSCILLATOR
4.4 TEST AND ANALYSIS
4.4.1 TESTING AND SETTING THE INVERTER
4.5 BILL OF ENGINEERING CONSTRUCTION
As blackouts roll through power-starved communities, the threat to you and your computer is not the lack of electricity, but the change in power. When the lights are off and you are about to start any industrial or computer-based projects, all your efforts will be wasted. Even when your system acts as a server, a sudden shutdown could disrupt the processing of many others. You can make your work immune to the intransigence of rolling blackouts and protect against many other types of unexpected power disturbances. Your secret weapon is the uninterruptible power supply or uninterruptible power source. Commonly called the UPS, this devices is a cleaver threefold package-a set of battery, an inverter that transforms the low-voltage direct current of the batteries into the standard alternating current equivalent to your wall outlet, and a battery changer that assures that reserve power storage system (the batteries) with interfaces to mach it to utility power and your computer system. A UPS differs from an auxiliary emergency power system or standby generator in that it will provide instantaneous or near-instantaneous protection from input power interruptions by means of one or more attached batteries and associated electronic circuitry for low power users, and or by means of diesel generators and flywheels for high power users. While not limited to protecting any particular type of equipment, a UPS is typically used to protect computers, data centers, telecommunication equipment or other electrical equipment where an unexpected power disruption could cause injuries, fatalities, serious business disruption and/or data loss. UPS units range in size from units designed to protect a single computer without a video monitor (around 200 VA rating) to large units powering entire data centers, buildings, or even cities. The UPS is designed to project against changes, specifically a temporary loss of electrical supply.
This project focuses on conversion of AC to DC and from DC to AC power inverters, which aim to efficiently transform a DC power source to a high voltage AC source, similar to power that would be available at an electrical wall outlet. Inverters are used for many applications, as in situations where low voltage DC sources such as batteries, solar panels or fuel cell must be converting electrical power from a car battery to run a laptop, TV or cell phone.
DC and AC Current
In the world today there are currently two forms of electrical transmission, Direct Current (DC) and Alternating Current (AC), each with its own advantages and disadvantages. DC power is simply the application of a steady constant voltage across a circuit resulting in a constant current. A battery is the most common source of DC transmission as current flows from one end of a circuit to the other. Most digital circuitry today is run off of DC power as it carries the ability to provide either a constant high or constant low voltage, enabling digital logic to process code executions. Historically, electricity was first commecially transmitted by Thomas Edison, and was a DC power line. However, this electricity was low voltage, due to the inability to step up DC voltage at the time, and thus it was not capable of transmitting power over long distances.
P=IV = I2R
As can be seen in the equations above, power loss can be derived from the electrical current squared and the resistance of a transmission line. When the voltage is increased, the current decreases and concurrently the power loss decreases exponentially; therefore high voltage transmission reduces power loss. For this reasoning electricity was generated at power stations and delivered to homes and businesses through AC power. Alternating current, unlike DC, oscillates between two voltage values at a specified frequency, and it’s ever changing current and voltage makes it easy to step up or down the voltage. For high voltage and long distance transmission situations, all that is needed to step up or down the voltage of the transformer. Developed in 1886 by William Stanley Jr., the transformer made long distance electrical transmission using AC power possible.
Electrical transmission has therefore been mainly based upon AC power, supplying most Nigerian homes with a 220 volt AC source. It should be noted that since 1954 there have been many high voltage DC transmission systems implemented around the globe with the advent of DC/DC converters, allowing the easy stepping up and down of DC voltages. Like DC power, there exist many devices such as power tools, radios and TV’s that run off of AC power.
It is therefore crucial that both forms of electricity transmission exist; the world cannot be powered with one simple form. It then becomes a vital matter for there to exist easy ways to transform DC to AC power and vice versa in an efficient manner. Without this ability people will be restricted to what electronic devices they use depending on the electricity source available. Electrical AC/DC converters and DC/AC inverters allow people this freedom in transferring electrical power between the two.
Offline / standby
Inverters and Applications
Power inverters are devices which can convert electrical energy of DC form into that of AC. They come in all shapes and sizes, from low power functions such as powering a car radio to that of backing up a building in case of power outage. Inverters can come in many different varieties, differing in price, power, efficiency and purpose. The purpose of a DC/AC power inverter is typically to take DC power
supplied by a battery, such as a 12 volt car battery, and transform it into a 220 volt AC power source operating at 50Hz, emulating the power available at an ordinary household electrical outlet. Power inverters are used today for many tasks like powering appliances in a car such as cell phones, radios and televisions. They also come in handy for consumers who own camping vehicles, boats and at construction sites where an electric grid may not be as accessible to hook into. Inverters allow the user to provide AC power in areas where only batteries can be made available, allowing portability and freeing the user of long power cords. However, most UPS units are also capable in varying degrees of correcting common utility power problems like:
Factors to consider when designing an inverter is
1.11 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES
The objective of this project may be summarized as listed below
1.12 SCOPE OF THIS PROJECT
This project research encompasses the features of the variety of the components used in the construction of a UPS, their limitations and favourable working conditions, and the application of inverter in different field.
1.13 AVAILABILITY OF DESIGN MATERIALS
Materials used in the construction of this UPS are readily available in electronic stores across the country and are also very affordable depending on the rating of the UPS to be constructed
Keywords: CONSTRUCTION OF UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY