EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ALCOHOLICS

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✎: EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ALCOHOLICS

❐: Chapter 1 – 5
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Keywords: EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ALCOHOLICS

 

RESEARCH BODY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Alcohol

1.1.1    Chemistry of alcohol

1.1.2    Alcohol production

1.1.2.1 Beer production

1.1.2.2 The production of palm wine

1.1.2.3 Production of distilled spirit

1.1.3    Absorption, distribution and metabolism of alcohol

1.1.3.1 Absorption

1.1.3.2 Distribution

1.1.3.3 Alcohol metabolism

1.1.3.3.1   Alcohol dehydrogenase pathway

1.1.3.3.2   Microsomal ethanol oxidizing system (MEOS)

1.1.4    Patterns of alcohol use and abuse

1.1.4.1 Psychological dependence

1.1.4.2 Physical dependence

1.1.4.3 Tolerance

1.1.5    Aetiology/causes of alcohol abuse

1.1.5.1 Biochemical basis

1.1.5.2 Psychosocial basis of alcohol abuse

1.1.5.3 Genetic factors

1.1.6    Effect of alcohol`

1.1.6.1 The effects of ethanol on the central nervous system

1.2       Microanatomy of the kidney

1.2.1    The nephron

1.2.2    Vulnerability of the kidney to alcohol toxicity

1.2.3    Renal function tests as indicator of alcohol induced kidney injuries

1.2.4    How alcohol-induced nephropathies affect glomerular filtration

1.2.5    Determinants of glomerular filtration

1.2.6    Creatinine clearance as a measure of glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

1.3       Serum electrolyte and alcohol-induced renal dysfunctions

1.4       Alcohol induced pathological proteinuria

1.5       Urine specific gravity as an index of alcohol-induced renal dysfunction

1.6       Alteration in plasma urea concentration as a pointing indicator of renal dysfunction under the nephrotoxic assault of chronic and excessive alcohol abuse

1.7       Microanatomy of the human liver

1.8       The liver and alcohol metabolising system

1.9       The nature and metabolic roles of some alcohol metabolizing enzymes

1.9.1    Alcohol dehydrogenase

1.9.2    Cytochrome P450

1.9.3    Aldehyde dehydrogenase

1.10     Some alcohol-induced liver problems

1.10.1  Ethanol-induced liver dysfunctions

1.11     Alcoholic liver diseases

1.11.1  Hepatic steatosis (fatty liver)

1.11.2  Alcohol hepatitis

1.11.3  Alcoholic cirrhosis

1.12     Alcohol-induced liver degeneration and intracellular accumulation

1.13     Bilirubin metabolism and alcohol-induced liver dysfunction

1.14     Diagnosis of alcohol-induced liver problems

1.14.1  Enzymes of diagnostic utility in alcohol induced liver dysfunction

1.14.1.1           Aminotransferases

1.14.1.2           Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)

1.15     Justification of the study

1.16     Aim and objectives of the study

1.16.1  Aim of the study

1.16.2  Objectives of the study

CHAPTER TWO: MATERIALS AND METHODS

2.1       Materials

2.1.1    Subjects used

2.1.2    Location/Zone of Study

2.1.3    Chemicals/Reagents/Samples

2.1.4    Instruments/Equipment

2.2       Methods

2.2.1    Experimental design

2.2.2    Collection of 24-hour urine sample

2.2.3    Collection of blood specimens

2.2.4    Experimental analyses

2.2.4.1 Determination of urine total protein concentration

2.2.4.2 Measurement of urine specific gravity

2.2.4.3 Determination of urea concentration

2.2.4.4 Determination of creatinine concentration

2.2.4.5 Determination of serum potassium ion concentration

2.2.4.6 Determination of serum sodium ion concentration

2.2.4.7 Determination of direct bilirubin concentration

2.2.4.8 Assay of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity

2.2.4.9 Assay of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activity

2.2.4.10   Assay of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity

2.2.4.11           Assay of gamma-glutamyltransferase activity

2.2.4.12           Measurement of body mass index

2.2.4.13           Measurement of blood pressure

2.3       Statistical analysis

CHAPTER THREE: RESULTS

3.1       Effect of alcohol consumption on urine total protein concentration in human subjects

3.2       Effect of alcohol consumption on urine specific gravity in human subjects

3.3       Effect of alcohol consumption on serum urea concentration in human subjects

3.4       Effect of alcohol consumption on serum creatinine concentration in human subjects

3.5       Effect of alcohol consumption on urine creatinine concentration in human subjects

3.6       Effect of alcohol consumption on creatinine clearance in human subjects

3.7       Effect of alcohol consumption on serum potassium concentration in human subjects

3.8       Effect of alcohol consumption on serum sodium concentration in human subjects

3.9       Effect of alcohol consumption on serum total bilirubin concentration in human subjects

3.10     Effect of alcohol consumption on serum alkaline phosphatase activity in human subjects

3.11     Effect of alcohol consumption on serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in human subjects

3.12     Effect of alcohol consumption on serum alanine aminotransferase activity in human subjects

3.13     Effect of alcohol consumption on gamma glutamyltransferase activities in humans subjects

3.14     Effect of alcohol consumption on body mass index in human subjects

3.15     Effect of alcohol consumption on blood pressure in human subjects

CHAPTER FOUR: DISCUSSION

4.1       Discussion

4.2       Conclusion

4.3       Suggestions for Further Research

REFERENCES

APPENDICES

 

Keywords: EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ALCOHOLICS

 


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Keywords: EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL ON SOME BIOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF ALCOHOLICS

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