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Keywords: FEMALE PARTICIPATION IN TRADE UNION ACTIVITIES
The main purpose of this study is to find and explain the female participation in trade union activities with reference to Nestle plc, Ota Ogun State. Female participation in trade unioin activities and policy formation are important tools which the management of an organization can use in order to foster efficiency. Effectiveness and organization commitments are goals towards which motivated behaviour is directed.
The study, due to its vast nature is restricted to selected employees in the production sector of Nestle plc. However a few hypothesis were formulated based on the questionnaire administered during the field work to find those factors responsible for the participation of female in trade union activities.
We interpreted that the responses given by the respondents through distribution tables while the tentative statements through chi-square statistical technique. Based on the findings, it is recommended that managers should be able to provide the right organizational climate to ensure that their climate are working towards the goals of the organization as well as achieving their own personal goals. Also, it is preferred that employees should be allowed to participate freely in decision making so that would be carried along in the organization and that should be allowed to express themselves at various meetings.
Keywords: Trade union; collective bargaining, organizational commitment, organizational goals, discrimination, gender, workers, leadership.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 General Background of the Study
1.2 Statement of problem
1.3 Research questions
1.4 Objectives of the study
1.5 Research hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Plan of the study
2.1 Literature review
2.2 Theoretical framework
2.2.1 Psycho- analytic theory
2.2.2 Cultural theory
2.2.3 Radical feminism theory
2.3 Conceptual framework
2.3.1 Female workers and trade union activities
2.3.2 Female participation in union decision
2.3.3 Size of female in labour market
2.3.4 Gender issues
2.3.5 Leadership role of female in trade unions
2.3.6 Trade union programmes and female interest
2.3.7 Female workers and cultural bargaining
2.3.8 Factors responsible for increasing the level of female participation
3.1 Research design
3.2 Study area
3.3 The study population
3.4 Sampling procedure and sampling size
3.5 Research instruments
3.6 Validity and Reliability of research instruments
3.7 Method of data analysis
3.8 Ethical consideration
3.9 Field experiments and limitation of the study
4.1 Socio economic characteristics of respondents
4.1.1 Sex of respondents
4.1.2 Age of respondents
4.1.3 Marital status of respondents
4.1.4 Educational qualification of respondents
4.1.5 Religion of respondents
4.1.6 Length of service of respondents
4.1.7 Respondents response on if there is Gender Discrimination in any union
4.1.8 Respondent response on if there is equal Opportunities
for both sex in the organization
4.1.9 Respondents response on if female are actively
Involved in union activities
4.1.10 Respondents response on if female are newcomers to the
4.1.11 Respondents response on if male will vote for
Female aspirants in unions
4.1.12 Respondents response on if female Representative
Will make a difference
4.1.13 Respondents response on if female can handle
The position of leadership
4.1.14 Respondents response on if female understand
How the union can be of benefit to them
4.1.15 Respondents response on if female should not Rub
Hands with male
4.1.16 Respondents response on if female lack confidence in a
Aspiring leadership positions
4.1.17 Respondents response on if education has Been a
Contributory factors to sex discrimination in trade
4.1.18 Respondents response on if cultural values has
Encouraged female participation in trade union
4.1.19 Respondents response on if the union is really Sensitive
Sensitive to the needs of female workers
4.1.20 Respondents response on if they believe female work
Has been relegated to the home
4.1.21 Respondents response on female who participate freely
In decision making tend to be more committed
4.1.22 Respondents response on if female participation in trade union
Influenced their performance efficiency
4.1.23 Respondents response on if active participants of female in
Union activities has a negative impact on the family function
4.1.24 Respondents response on believing on the common saying
That what a man can do a woman can do better
4.1.25 Respondents response on if female role should be limited
To the kitchen
4.1.26 Respondents response on if gradual awareness of female in
Trade union has been welcomed by male
4.1.27 Respondents response on do female attend meeting regularly 4.1.28 Respondents response on the extent to which female
Participate in trade union activities
4.1.29 Respondents response on what extent has government
Contributed on improving female participation in trade
4.1.30 Respondents response on what extent has female assumed
Leadership role in trade unions
4.1.31 Respondents response on what extent has the Nigerian
Labour law affected female leader
4.2 Research Hypothesis
4.2.1 Hypothesis 1
4.2.2 Hypothesis 2
4.3 Discussion of findings
5.1 Summary of findings
1.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Trade union activities occupy a unique position in the relations system of Nigeria, not only because it is an institutional framework serving as a catalyst in the process of promoting industrial peace and harmony but also because it is the tool by which the workers come together to fight for their rights and privileges and thereby achieve for themselves those benefits they could not or might not succeed in obtaining, struggling individually (singleton 2003) under the company union and domestic union system female did not feature much, even in the areas where they dominated. To some extent, the gradual awareness of female in the union has been largely welcomed by some of their male counterparts. Nevertheless, prejudices die hard, and some of our colleagues in trade unions would certainly get to all length to frustrate female trade unionists. A female participation in trade union activities can be described as enlightened, liberated, being able to know her rights and obligation and how to fight for them. Those who refused to participate in trade unions have done so because of the attendants’ hardships. These include attendance of union meetings for hours on end. As an active trade unionist, the female are meant to comply dossier on every active trade unionist (Kalejaiye 2005). Invariably, in spite of the eminent positions which female workers have attained in industry and civil service as leaders, permanent secretaries, etc. it is regrettable that the level of female civil servant participation in trade union is almost abandon or negligible. Female civil public servants have totally left the running of trade unions to their male counterparts by refusing to attend meetings, by not aspiring for elective offices within the trade unions and the lack of commitment to the role of their own trade unions at the domestic, local, state and national levels (Peterson 2004) it is pertinent to state, for that avoidance of doubt that but for the promulgation of labour (amendment) decree no 21, which makes it obligatory for employers to operate their check off system to cover all employers who are eligible to be members expect those who constraints out of the system in writing, many would have willingly paid their monthly contributions to their own trade union body. On the other hand, a largely proportion of female folk would have contracted out of the system in writing, but for fear of the wrath of other members of their trade union. In theory, there are, in most documents, no visible traces of discriminationatory provisions against female worker in trade unions. In both cases described above, it is obvious that there is discrimination against the female workers either by design or by mistake. Where such a situation exists, female employees with the support of the union should endeavour to bargain for the removal of such discriminatory clauses (Ramidel 2005).
1.2 STATEMENT OF RESEARCH PROBLEM
In the propose study, it is established that more female than before are engaged in wage and salary employment. However, women are primarily housewives, mother and secondary wage earners. Experience has shown that at times of national emergency, the nation depends entirely on women as the major source of productive labour force.
However, there are problems which face the working women. they is faced with the inbuilt prejudice of their male colleagues who see them as a threat to their promotional prospects. There are also other constraints such as discrimination in promotion, assignment of responsibility and in the enjoyment of fringe benefits. Though the Nigerian constitution does not allow for sex discrimination either at work or in politics, cases abound where female workers refused employment on grounds of their sex. The labour laws as they affect female workers such as maternity protection, night works etc. are modelled on the international labour organization ILO minimum standards.
Whatever benefits the female workers enjoy today are achieved through trade union agitation, but the grace of federal governments. Even in the union, women all the time are discriminated against, particular in the areas of assignment, election to offices and nomination for courses and training in the trade union. To some extent, the gradual awareness of female in trade union activities has been largely welcomed by some of their male counterparts. Nevertheless, prejudices die hard, and some of their colleagues in trade unions would certainly go to all length to frustrate female unionist. The focus of this study on examines the extent to which female participation in Nestle Nigeria Plc in specific terms: The attendance of women in congress meeting. Their voting behaviours during election of their official and whether they are interested in holding their union position. How will the project/programme strength women’s position compared to that of men. How to enlightening, liberate, and to be able to know their rights and obligation.
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
The research work is expected to provide solution to the following questions;
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The central objective of the research work is to access and evaluate female participation in trade union, with special reference to national union of banks, insurance and financial institution employees.
The specific objectives are;
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
Hypothesis, according to Nackmass and Nackmass (2005) is a tentative statement that shows the relationship among variables. It is also a conjectural proposition used by researchers to provide a solution to problems research (Akinboye, 1991). Therefore, the following hypothesis will be tested in this research work.
The following were the hypothesis to be tested in the research work:
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The study is significant in that it would be helpful to the development and effectiveness of female participation in leaderdership role, trade union activities, collective bargaining, decision making, not only in NESTLE FOOD NIG. PLC. but also in other contemporary industrial unions. This study intents to contribute to the existing body of knowledge and findings, suggestion and recommendation will help other researchers, students, administrators, managers, unionist or union leaders and other practitioners to understand how female’s participation should be embraced in every industrial organization. In this sense, the topic appears self discriminatory; it highlights the extent of female participation in trade union activities.
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The scope of this study is to examine the impacts of female workers in participation of trade union activities with reference to Nestle Food Nig.Plc. The result will however provide accurate evidence of the relationship that exist between the variables to be examined in the research study. The scope of this study is that it is restricted to managers whose views are being collected here are only those managers who companies are located in Lagos. The wisdom in choosing managers in Lagos is because the state is a cosmopolitan city, and has the highest concentration of registered manufacturing companies in Nigeria.
1.8 PLAN OF THE STUDY
This study is specifically divided into five (5) main chapters. Chapter one deals with the introduction to the study, problem statement, objective of the study, research questions, formulation of hypothesis, scope of study, significance of the study, and plan of study.
Chapter two reviews literature on the impact of female workers participation in trade union activities. This chapter also seeks to identify the factors militating against the effectiveness of female participation.
Chapter three focuses on research methodology to be adopted for the research work. This includes the population of study, research design, simple size/ sampling techniques, types of data and method of data collection.
Chapter four emphasizes on the presentation of findings.
Keywords: FEMALE PARTICIPATION IN TRADE UNION ACTIVITIES
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Keywords: FEMALE PARTICIPATION IN TRADE UNION ACTIVITIES
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