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Keywords: PARENTAL AWARENESS OF ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE USE
1.1 Background of the Study
Parents are major influence in their children‟s live, thus their perception of how children think and should be raised is crucial in determining children‟s behaviour. Parenting awareness are standard strategies that parents use in their child discipline.
Self-discipline can be understood as a vital component of a sense of ownership and responsibility for one‟s behaviour.When self-discipline is effectively learned during childhood, there is greater likelihood of successful coping and accomplishment in adulthood. Effective self-discipline implies that a child has internalized a set of rules so that even without the presence of parent or other caregiver, the child will act in a thoughtful, reflective manner.
Child discipline is the set of rules, rewards and punishments administered to teach self control, increase desirable behaviours and decrease undesirable behaviours in children. Behaviour is a function of social environment relative to the culture, historical, and social settings in which an individual displays a given behaviour (Inman, 2009). Truancy is one of the major antisocial discipline problems among secondary school students in Nigeria.
Truancy, in line with the study, is the most commonly used term to describe school absenteeism and is usually seen as the deliberate absence from school on the part of the learner without the knowledge or consent of a parent. Truancy is the act of deliberately missing one or more classes. It is also staying away from school. A truant is a child who stays away from school without permission. This negative attitude among students has been attributed to lack of effective discipline. As observed in Ogbodo (2008), truancy among adolescents in secondary schools has contributed largely not only to the poor performance of students in examinations conduct internally and externally but also to the moral decadence prevalent among adolescents in secondary schools.
The researcher considers adolescence stage to be 15-21years which is most critical and crucial period of human life, critical and crucial because it is at this period that psychological, physiological or cultural events may have a more important effect on future development than they would have if they occurred either earlier or later. To support this assertion, Nwogu (2009) stated, “adolescents acquired a sense of right and wrong partly through parental discipline as well as in everyday conversation with parents. The consequences of breaking rules and what it takes to be a good boy or a good girl depends on awareness applied by the parents”.
Parents create their own discipline style from a combination of factors and these may evolve overtime as the children develop their own personalities and move through life stages. Parenting awareness affect both parents and children‟s temperament and are largely influenced by one‟s own parent and culture. Parents establish certain guidelines and rules for adolescents to follow. These help children understand what kind of behaviour their parents expect of them.
Parenting awareness involve Authoritarian, Democratic, permissive, Neglectful and Indulgent styles. For the purpose of the study, the researcher considered the following 3 identified awareness: Authoritarian, Democratic and the Permissive. Authoritarian disciplinary style constitutes of parents who are often strict, harsh and rigid in the rule they set. Democratic disciplinary style constitutes of parents who are flexible and responsive to the adolescent needs but still impose reasonable standard of conduct. It involves the use of rules and reasoning to promote obedience and keep discipline.
Permissive disciplinary style constitute of parent that do not show consistency in the use of rules, they have “leissez-fair” attitude towards their children behaviour. According to Okusun (2010), “Adolescents first identify with their parents than other adults, how these adolescents incorporate good or bad behaviour is one of the internalization of positive or negative parenting disciplinary styleinfluence”. Hence the study wishes to establish relationship between adolescent students‟ substance abuseand parenting awareness.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Early age of adolescent has some certain characteristics regarding their social-behaviour. Truancy is one of the major anti-social discipline problems among secondary school students in Nigeria. Truancy among adolescents in secondary schools has contributed largely not only to the poor performance of students in examinations conducted internally and externally but also to the moral decadence prevalent among adolescents in secondary schools. In view, the researcher as a result of her personal experiences with secondary school students for over a decade in thefieldof teaching discovered that students in secondary schools especially in Kano State are no longer interested in school. They leave their homes in the morning on the pretext of going to school but they roam the street and return home at the close of the school. This have succeeded in destroying the very foundation of education and may lead to other antisocial behavior such as stealing, lying, hooliganism, raping, kidnapping, drug use, cheating in examination and the like. As announced over the Radio F.M. Kano on 15th April, 2014, three adolescent boys of 15 – 18 years kidnapped a nursery school child of four years at U/Uku Kano Municipal area, to extort money from the child‟s parent. In the process to inject the child to fall asleep they caused his death. In an attempt to hide the corpse, two of the boys were caught and handed to the police.
Most students may have the abilities and opportunities to study and achieve their ambitions in life but they may not put these abilities and opportunities into use due to misappropriate use of parental awareness and they may refuse to learn and eventually drop out from school thus causing shortage of qualified graduants.
This motivated the researcher to ascertain the influence of parental awareness on adolescent students‟ truant behavior in secondary schools in Kano State.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The general objective of the study was to investigate the influence of parental awareness on adolescent students‟ substance abuse in senior secondary schools in Kano State.
The specific objectives are to:
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance.
HO1: There is no significant influence of parents‟ use of authoritarian disciplinary style on adolescent students‟ substance abusein senior secondary schools in Kano State.
HO2: There is no significant influence of parents‟ use of democratic disciplinary style on adolescent students‟ substance abusein senior secondary schools in Kano State.
HO3: There is no significant influence of parents‟ use of permissive disciplinary style on adolescent students‟ substance abusein senior secondary schools in Kano State.
HO4: There is no significant difference among the truants behaviour of adolescent students whose parents adopt either authoritarian, democratic or permissive awareness in senior secondary schools in Kano State.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study will be of benefit to the parents, teachers, students, Home Economics Curriculum Planners and the society at large. The study will help to enlighten the parents and teachers the characteristics and effects of each of the awareness. The study will also enlighten the students the dangers of truancy behavior.
Therefore parents and teachers will benefit from the study in that, they should be able to adopt to the use of authoritarian, democratic and the permissive awareness interchangeably and appropriately to shape the truancy behavior of the students.This could be achieved through P.T.A meeting. Also by enlighten truancy behavior problems in the society such as raping, drug use, examination malpractices, hooliganism, kidnapping and involvement into gang activities, over the mass media, in the journals, newspapers and television talks.
Student will benefit from the study in that, they should be able to adjust well to their studies by enlighten them the dangers of truancy behavior. This could be achieved at the student forum, Students Association Clubs and through the end of year speeches. Home economics curriculum planners will benefit from the study in that it will add knowledge to Home Economics Curriculum. The society will benefit from the study through workshops, training and conferences.
1.7 Basic Assumptions
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
The study is delimited to parents and adolescent students of age 15-18 years, in 12 Selected Senior Secondary Schools as follows: GSSDantatta, GGSSRoni, G.S.S. Gaya, G.G.S.S. Marke, G.S.S. G/Malam, G.S.S. Ajingi, G.G.S.S. Ruma, G.S.S. Kurfi, G.G.S.S.
Jaja in 3 senatorial political zones that is, Kano North, Kano Central and Kano South in Kano State, Nigeria. The study involved class SS II Senior Secondary Schools for they have the traits and characteristics of the researcher‟s interest. The study was also delimited to authoritarian, democratic and permissive awareness, these variable are believed to have relationship with adolescent students‟ truant behaviour.
Keywords: PARENTAL AWARENESS OF ADOLESCENT SUBSTANCE USE