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Keywords: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF RUNNING PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS
The study was carried out to examine the problems and prospects of running private secondary schools, a case study of Odeda local government area of Ogun state and the research objectives for this study are to ascertain the prevalence of private secondary schools in odeda local government area of Ogun state, examine the challenges facing private secondary schools in odeda local government area of Ogun state, investigate if the challenges in running private secondary schools in odeda LGA influence the academic performance of students, ascertain peoples’ opinion on if there is a prospect of running private secondary schools in odeda local government area of Ogun state, and find out the possible solutions to the problems of running private secondary schools, a case study of odeda local government area of Ogun state. Survey research design was used in this study and the sample of this study comprises of 80 teachers, principals, and proprietors from various private secondary schools in Odeda local government area of Ogun state. Information were obtained from the respondents and one of the conclusions derived was that the challenges facing private secondary schools in odeda local government area of Ogun state are Inadequate finances, Poor learning environment, Low quality teachers, Inappropriate curriculum, and Indiscipline of students.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.1 Background of the study
1.2 Statement of the problem
1.3 Objectives of the study
1.4 Research Questions
1.5 Research Hypothesis
1.6 Significance of the study
1.7 Scope of the study
1.8 Limitation of the study
1.9 Definition of terms
2.1 Educational Development in Nigeria
2.2 Reasons for Private Establishment of Schools in Nigeria
2.3 Comparing Private and Public Schools on Educational Development
2.4 Challenges of Secondary Education in Nigeria
2.5 Educational Management and Private Ownership in Nigeria
2.6 Issues Related to Privately Managed Institution
2.7 Connecting Education with Sustainable Development
2.8 Prospects of Private Secondary Schools in Nigeria
3.2 Research Design
3.3 Study Population
3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
3.5 Data for the Study: Instrumentation
3.5.2 Validity of Instrument
3.6 Method of Data Analysis
DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS
4.1 Presentation of Result
4.3 Discussion of the findings
SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
1.1 Background of the Study
Education is a continuous and dynamic process that brings mostly desired and positive change in the behavior of the human organism (Ogunu, 2008). It is a multi-dimensional activity that includes physical, moral, spiritual and scientific development with an acquisition of knowledge, values, and learning of skills. It is the reconstruction of experiences to make a better social adjustment to the existing environment. Formal education in its closed circuit covers the influence intentional planned, selected and employed by the society for the benefits of the next generation, with objective of modifying the behavior of the young and to mound his posture in a more desirable format than the one he would have been in without this formal education (Babalola, 2013).
The education which is consciously planned and imparted through the process of curriculum and instruction is genuinely called true education. Education institutions are the first specialized place for imparting formal or academic education to the learner (Ogunu, 2008). Education is generally acknowledged to be means of empowering an individual through the acquisition and utilization of knowledge and skills to enable him/her become useful to himself/herself in the community. Nwadiani (2010) acclaimed education as a magic wand for the solution to the problems that plague mankind. Education, therefore, is the aggregate of all processes by means of which a person develops abilities, attitude and other forms of behavior of positive value in the society in which he lives.
The history of private ownership in educational administration in Nigeria could be traced to the period when Western education was introduced to the country, in the 19th century (Ehiguina, 2009). As at the time in question missionaries and churches played dominant roles towards the development and administration of education (Eimuhi, 2014). Even, when the colonial and self-government took over the control the significance of education towards national development made private individual, communities and even both the local and international organizations to have interest in the development of education at all level (Ehiguina, 2009).
In Nigeria for instance, the secondary school curriculum is designed to encourage all students to achieve their spiritual, intellectual and social potential as well as to understand the relevance of learning in their daily lives. It is important to note that, it is one thing to develop/design curriculum, it is another thing to implement it effectively. Objectives of any level of education cannot be achieved if the planned programme for such level of education is not well implemented. Onyeachu (2008) observed that no matter how well a curriculum of any subject is planned, designed and documented, implementation is important. It could be true that the establishment of educational institutions was in pursuit of meeting the global requirements of producing manpower that will serve in different capacities and contribute positively to the nation’s socio-economic and political development in Nigeria (Abdulkareem, Fasasi and Akinubi, 2011). But, how far has Nigerian education delivered on this mandate? Put differently, does the curriculum of Nigerian education reflect the objectives of her national policy on education? Secondary Education in Nigeria is aimed at promoting a progressive and united Nigeria. It is expected to function as a preparation for life and for higher education. Secondary education in Nigeria is one of the levels of education for the achievement of the philosophy and objectives of Nigerian Education as highlighted in the National Policy in Education (2004). The objectives include a free and democratic society; a just and egalitarian society; a united, strong and self-reliant nation; a great and dynamic economy and a land of bright and full opportunity for all citizens.
To achieve these objectives, the policy stated that the quality of instruction at all levels has to be oriented towards inculcating the values among others: respect for the dignity of labour and shared the responsibility of the common good of the society. The government recognized the importance of education in the realization of the above five important objectives of education and so asks for the cooperation of all other agencies concern with education. This, the policy believed will foster the much-needed unity in Nigeria. The policy is not only confident that education is the greatest force that can bring about redress in these areas but also, the greatest investment that the nation can make for the quick development of its economic, political, sociological and human resources.
However, there seems to be a persistent and widespread loss of confidence in public educational institutions. As Ajayi (2010) noted, it is still observed that public education today has been faced with various challenges ranging from mismanagement of allocated resources to falling academic standards.
Other important reasons for loss of confidence in our educational system include poor planning and a consistent lack of investment in the education system. This had led to a near collapse of the system living the education infrastructure in an appalling and dilapidated state. A casual visit to any public school in Nigeria would reveal the extent to which these educational institutions have decayed. Educational facilities at all levels are in a terrible shape; schools are littered with battered structures; worn-out equipment (where they are available at all); junk and unserviceable vehicles; raggedy classroom buildings; over-crowded classrooms; inadequate manpower in quantity and quality; instability in the academic calendar owing to strikes; very low teacher (staff) morale due to poor remuneration and working conditions. With the public educational infrastructure in this condition (and very little is being done to remedy the situation) parents who are concerned about giving their wards the best available educational options will obviously be looking for viable alternatives and this, it seems, is manifestly the case in Nigeria. Many parents seem to be looking for quality education at whatever cost, economically and otherwise and regardless of who is providing it.
Therefore, given the level of decay and the pervasive conditions of ineptitude and lack of professionalism in the public schools, many parents feel let down; but they cannot give up their dream of giving their children the best in terms of education. This is where the private educational institutions come in.
According to Adebayo (2009, p.2):
“Since the early 1900s, private ownership and control of schools is becoming (or has become) very popular. Privately run schools are now being looked upon to correct the ills and lapses by the long years of government involvement in running of schools, we are now witnessing a situation whereby, faith-based or missionary schools that were wrested from their founders by government are now being returned to their former owners, and some schools that were established by government are even to be concession out to private people for management e.g. the Federal Government Colleges or Unity Schools”
The history of modern education in Nigeria could be traced to the efforts of private organization especially the Christian mission.
The clarion call on individuals to help finance education has led to the proliferation of private secondary schools in Nigeria. Arguments abound as to whether these private secondary schools contribute to the development of secondary education in Nigeria and by extension to national development. Some analysts agreed that these private secondary schools are too expensive for a majority of Nigerians to afford. That the main motive behind their establishment is profit motives. Others say that these schools are established to fill the gap created by the dilapidating nature of public schools. This study intends to investigate the impact of private secondary schools on the development of secondary education in Nigeria. Therefore, there is a need to carry out a study on the problems and prospects of running private secondary schools, the case study of odeda local government area of Ogun state.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
One of the shortcomings of private secondary education is that there are unqualified teachers who did not attain their degrees from the university, polytechnics, and colleges of education. Because of the inability of private secondary schools to employ qualifies teachers, unqualified teachers are often been employed and this influences the academic performance of students in Private secondary schools (Ehiguina, 2009).
Also, most private secondary education suffers from a lack of finance from the state government (Ajayi, 2010). This contributes to the lack of basic instructional materials e.g. textbooks, well-equipped libraries, and facilities which include chairs, desks, and tables in private secondary schools. In the secondary schools, some of the pupils sit on the floor to receive lessons while others stand. Some even have to bring chairs from their homes and after school, they take them back. Some chairs do not have desks to write on, this is common in public schools.
Overcrowded classrooms are another major problem (Ogunu, 2008). There is not enough space for proper teaching and learning to take place and not enough ventilation. The problem is compounded by the uncontrolled enrollment of children in schools. The further problem is the mushrooming of private secondary schools in the country, which could have been a solution to the problem but their fees are so much that these kinds of schools are meant for the rich only. The average or poor families cannot afford such exorbitant fees.
Due to the high level of school fees in Private secondary school, most parents who are not financially capable tend to enroll their children in public schools. This has, in turn, resulted to decrease in the number of students in private secondary schools and reduces their ability to maintain a steady financial stability. For these reasons, there is a need to carry out a study on the problems and prospects of running private secondary schools, a case study of odeda local government area of Ogun state.
1.3 Objectives of the study
The general objective of this study is to examine the problems and prospects of running private secondary schools, a case study of Odeda local government area of Ogun state. In order to achieve this objective, the specific objectives for this study include the following:
1.4 Research Questions
The relevant questions related to this study: include the following
1.5 Research hypotheses
Keywords: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF RUNNING PRIVATE SECONDARY SCHOOLS