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Keywords: PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN UPPER BASIC SCHOOLS
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.8 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.3 EMPIRICAL REVIEW
2.4 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 AREA OF STUDY
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.4 RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.6 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.7 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 SUMMARY
1.1 Background to the Study
Social studies as a growing and dynamic subject have been firmly entrenched in the curricula of Nigerian schools and colleges. It is operational at the Junior Secondary School level and al the colleges of Education and even at the University level. The subject is also very prominent among many subjects at the Nursery and Primary School conventional subjects offered. Nevertheless, there are many emerging issues that need urgent attention in social studies Education.
Series of definitions have been given to what social studies is. We should be conscious of the fact that social studies covers a wide range of studies since it takes and uses concepts, ideas, skills, knowledge, attitudes and values from the social science subjects like geography, government., economics, religion, sociology and a host of others (Fadelye 2005). Therefore, there is no single definition of social studies that is universally accepted. Fadeiye (2006), defines it as the study of man, as he interacts with his different environment. These environment could be physical, social, political, economic or cultural environment. It is also the study of how man influences his environment with a view to getting maximum benefits from it. The subjects also deals with how the environment influences man in return. Social studies has also been described as a way of life, as it touches on all spheres of human endeavour. Social studies also describes how man tries to solve the problems of survival in whatever environment man finds himself. It also studies the society, the relationships between people and the world in which they live. Awe (1976). Saw social studies as a problem-solving discipline. She declared that: Social studies as a discipline if properly programmed and effectively taught should help to solve social problems that are facing developing countries like ours (Nigeria) where the old norms are fast losing their groups and no effective substitutes to replace them. NERC (1980), defined social studies as a way of seeing, viewing and approaching things with special regard to their proper place and function in the ordering and management of man’s total natural, social and technological environment. (CESAC 1979) Defined social studies as a relationship between man and his physical and social environment as well as his relationship between science and technology. In order to achieve the overall nature of social studies.
Mezieobi and Osakwe (2003), Esu and Inyang-Abia (2004), and Mezieobi (2007) have indicated that the essence of social studies instruction in junior secondary school is to equip the learner with attitudes, values, knowledge, and skills for functional living in the Nigerian society. It is therefore imperative that effective implementation of social studies instruction in line with vocational ideals of UBE be focused on equipping the learner with entrepreneurial and creative skills for productive living. Social studies education classroom instruction ought to be innovative in exposing the learner to discover knowledge, create ideas, and think scientifically. This is a veritable process of exposing and preparing the learners to become job creators rather than job seekers in future. In their perception of existent social studies classroom interaction process, Ukadike and Iyamu (2007) reported that social studies teachers are yet to involve learners adequately in active learning engagement and condemned the expository method which is responsible for the poor implementation of the social studies curriculum and consequent poor appreciation by learners of knowledge, values, attitudes, and skills in social studies curriculum. The quality of the social studies teachers and the effectiveness of their instructional strategies in the classroom are crucial in the effective implementation of the UBE programme. Against this background, Ibiam (2007) noted that rapid technological changes in the society render most often learned materials and information in the social studies classroom obsolete if the teacher is not resourceful to embrace dynamic changes in the society. Furthermore, Maduewesi (2001) and Ibiam (2007) observed that educational innovations are not instantly integrated into school curricula at all levels in Nigeria. Obuh (2007) discovered that social studies teachers have not demonstrated high competence in the use of ITCs (information and communication technologies) in the teaching of social studies.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Though, the inclusion of social studies in the school curriculum yielded some good fruits with regard to the above background, there are some challenges that are align with the inclusion of social studies in Nigeria examples of the problems according to Adewale 2016 are;
1. Lack of instructional materials affects the teaching of social studies
2. Lack of conducive environment affect the teaching of social studies.
3. Lack of appropriate method of teaching affect the teaching of social studies
4. Lack of incentive/regular payment of salary to teachers affects the teaching of social studies.
5. Lack of sufficient lesson periods allotted social studies affect the teaching of social studies.
With all the listed problem above the researcher also noticed that there is an acute shortage of qualified social studies teacher in Nigeria. This is because there was no adequate preparation of the government before the introduction of social studies in terms of qualified teachers.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to find out the problems of social studies in upper basic class in Zaria LGA, Kaduna state. Specifically the study intends to:
1. Find out the problems and prospect of social studies education in Nigeria
2. Investigate the impact of teaching social studies in Nigeria schools
3. Find out the challenges faced by social studies teachers in Nigeria
4. Proffer solution to the problems of teaching social studies in Nigeria
1.4 Research Question
1. What are the problems and prospect of social studies education in Nigeria
2. What are the impact of teaching social studies in Nigeria schools
3. What are the challenges faced by social studies teachers in Nigeria
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: There is no significant impact of social studies teaching in Nigeria
Hi: There is significant impact of social studies teaching in Nigeria
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will enlighten parents and the general public, and also help the government to recognize the problems affecting the effective teaching of social studies in upper basic schools. It will also help in the identification of those problems, and in no small measure help both the teacher and education planners to rejuvenate the present standard of schools in these areas.
This will also guide policy makers on how to tackle problems facing the teaching of social studies in Junior Secondary Schools. And it will help enhance students understanding of social studies and thereby improve their performances in social studies examinations.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This research work will vividly examine the problems of teaching social studies in Nigeria, also this research work will cover Zaria LGA in Kaduna state
1.8 Delimitation of the Study
Finance for the general research work will be a challenge during the course of study. Correspondents also might not be able to complete or willing to submit the questionnaires given to them.
However, it is believed that these constraints will be worked on by making the best use of the available materials and spending more than the necessary time in the research work. Therefore, it is strongly believed that despite these constraint, its effect on this research report will be minimal, thus, making the objective and significance of the study achievable.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Social Studies: various aspects or branches of the study of human society, considered as an educational discipline.
Keywords: PROSPECTS AND PROBLEMS OF TEACHING SOCIAL STUDIES IN UPPER BASIC SCHOOLS