RAKE RECEIVER METHOD TO REDUCE FADING IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

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✎: RAKE RECEIVER METHOD TO REDUCE FADING IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

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Keywords: RAKE RECEIVER METHOD TO REDUCE FADING IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

 

RESEARCH BODY

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of Study

Wireless communications is, by any measure, the fastest growing segment of the communications industry. It has captured the attention of the media and the imagination of the public. Cellular phones and other wireless devices have experienced exponential growth over the last decade, and this growth continues unabated worldwide, with more than a billion worldwide cell phone users projected in the near future. Indeed, cellular phones have become a critical business tool and part of everyday life in most developed countries, and are rapidly supplanting antiquated wire line systems in many developing countries. In addition, wireless local area networks are currently poised to supplement or replace wired networks in many businesses and campuses.

However, the fundamental phenomenon which makes transmission unreliable is time varying fading. The phenomenon is described as the constructive/destructive interference between signals arriving at the same antenna via different paths, and hence with different delays and phases, resulting in random fluctuations of the signal level at the receiver. When destructive interference occurs, the signal power can be significantly reduced and the phenomenon is called  Fading. Deep fades that may occur at parrticular time or frequency or in space result in severe degradation of the quality of the signal at the receiver making it impossible to decode or detect

(Neelam, 2010).

The term fading, means rapid fluctuations of the amplitudes, phases, or multipath delays of a radio signal over a short period or short travel distance. This might be so severe that large scale radio propagation loss effects might be ignored.

Fading is used to describe the fluctuations in a received signal as a result of multipath components. Several replicas of the signal arrive at the receiver, having traversed different propagation paths, adding constructively and destructively. The fading can be defined as fast fading or slow fading, (Siva; Ganga; Siddaiah; et al., 2010)

The wireless environment is highly unstable and fading is due to multipath propagation. Multipath propagation leads to rapid fluctuations of the phase and amplitude of the signal. The presence of reflectors in the environment surrounding a transmitter and receiver create multiple paths that a transmitted signal can traverse. As a result, the receiver sees the superposition of multiple copies of the transmitted signal, each traversing a different path. Each signal copy will experience differences in attenuation, delay and phase shift while traveling from the source to the receiver. This can result in either constructive or destructive interference, amplifying or attenuating the signal power seen at the receiver. Fading may be large scale fading or

small scale fading (Chavan, Chile, et al, 2011)

In a typical wireless communication environment, multiple propagation paths exist between transmitter and receiver due to scattering by different objects. Thus, copies of the signal following different paths can undergo different attenuation, distortions, delays and phase shifts. Constructive and destructive interference can occur at the receiver. When destructive interference occurs, the signal power can be significantly diminished. This phenomenon is called

fading, (Ekwe; Abioye; et al., 2014)

One of the causes of fading is multipath propagation.  Multipath is the propagation phenomenon that results in radio signals reaching the receiving antenna by two or more paths. Causes of multipath include atmospheric ducting, ionospheric reflection and refraction, and reflection from water bodies and terrestrial objects such as mountains and buildings. The effects of multipath include constructive and destructive interference, and phase shifting of the signal. In digital radio communications (such as GSM) multipath can cause errors and affect the quality of communications.

1.2 Problem Statement

Despite the vast improvement and advancement of wireless communications, fading is a major constraint to its effectiveness. Fading hinders effective propagation and communication of radio signals among wireless devices. It causes loss of information as signals propagate from the transmitter to the receiver.

Fading experienced by a wireless receiver causes dramatic fluctuations in received signal strength as a receiver moves over a relatively small local area. Multipath fading heavily contributes to the unreliability of wireless links, causing fairly large deviations from link quality predictions based on path loss models (Rappaport, 2002).  

1.3 Aim and Objectives

        The aim of this project is to use Rake receiver method to reduce fading in wireless communications.

 The objectives are to:

  1. Conduct a study of previous methods used in combating fading
  2. Formulate a Rake Receiver system model
  • Simulate the system model in (ii) using MATLAB programming language
  1. Evaluate its performance using MATLAB programming language

 

1.4 Significance of study

       Due to the ever increasing rise in technology which has made wireless communication devices like smart phones, desktop computers, Wireless Local Area network, Wireless sensor networks, Automated Highway and Factors, Smart homes and appliances and Remote telemedicine, fading helps to reduce the efficiency of these devices. It is therefore of utmost importance to eliminate or reduce fading to the barest minimum in these communication devices to enable transfer and recipient of information easy and to get the full message being conveyed from the sender to the receiver without any loss of information and also to increase the quality of transmission.

1.5 Scope of study

        The scope of this project is limited to Rake Receiver method of reducing fading. This project will also use MATLAB for simulation purpose.

 

Keywords: RAKE RECEIVER METHOD TO REDUCE FADING IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

 


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Keywords: RAKE RECEIVER METHOD TO REDUCE FADING IN WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS

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