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Keywords: THE EFFECT OF TWITTER SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS
This study explains the effect of Twitter social networking sites on the behaviour of secondary school students in Essence International schools, Kaduna and the ways it affect them. The study focuses on social Networking sites, but specifically it focuses on Twitter social networking sites. Interview as methodology is use to collect data and questionnaires as instrument of survey using random sampling techniques. Twitter social networking site has great impact and effect upon the behaviour of secondary schools students in both positive and negatives angles. Communicating with others is a key aspect of using social networks, but most social networking sites are open to all. Social networking sites are attractive to adolescents in part because it is exclusive to them. These social networking sites are a relatively new trend, having a population mostly made up of college and high school students.
1.0 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
The internet is a global system of interconnected computers that uses the standard internet protocol suite (TCPT/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide (Wikipedia, 2011). Castells, (1996) it is a network of millions of private, public, academic, business, and government computer networks linked by a broad array of electronic and optical networking technologies.
Castells, (2001) defines the internet as a worldwide interconnection of computers and computer networks that facilitates the sharing of exchange of information among users.
Wikipedia, (2011) explains that the internet carries a vast range of information resources and services to support traditional communication media including telephone, cinema and redefined by the internet, giving birth to new services such as voice over internet protocol (VOIP).
According to the Wikipedia, (2011) newspapers, books and other print media are adapting to website technology or are reshaped into blogging and web feeds. The internet has enabled or accelerated new forms of human interactions through instant messaging, internet for a , and social networking oppapers. Com/essays/2003.
According to cheong and Morrison, (2008), the internet is allowing greater flexibility in working hours and locations, especially with the speed connections, especially with the speed connections and web applications. Also, the internet can now be accessed almost anywhere by numerous means especially through mobile internet devices, mobile phones, data cards, handheld game consoles and cellular routers which allow users to connect to the internet from anywhere there is a network supporting that device’s technology (Goldsborough, 2009).
Castells, (2001), asserts that within the limitations imposed by small screens and other limited facilities of such pocket-sized devices, services of the internet, including email and web, may be available. Services offered and wireless data transmission charges may be significantly higher than other access methods.
The internet is fast becoming the dominant means of communications and commerce in the 21st century, its play the main role in changing communication throughout the world and also impacting on global economic system.
According to McLuhan, (1964) globalization has forever changed the world in which we live to a world that has become increasingly interconnected. McLuhan,  also asserts that the internet is perhaps the most prominent tool that has facilitated the interconnectedness. Internet network has shortened the communication distance by dimension of time and places together, giving birth to form of social networks.
A study (Goldsborough, 2008) indicates an increasing stage in social network usage. This increase is considered as another important change of the world’s information history. Students were mainly considered the first group users of social networks, and most white- collar professionals now also use them (Kim, 2008).
The Wikipedia (2011) narrates that the internet has enabled entirely new forms of social interaction, activities, and communication, thanks to its basic features such as wide spread us ability and access.
There are many social networking sites, such as face book, twitter, MySpace, HI5, Nimbus, 2go, Blackberry chart (Bbchart), xanga, yahoo and Bebo has created new ways to socialize and interact.
According to Rehmeyer, (2007) However, the internet has achieved new relevance as a political tool, leading to internet censorship by some states. This is however rare, the presidential campaign of Howard dean in 2004 in the United States was notable for its success in soliciting donation via the internet.(Rehmeyer, 2007)
Social networking websites have expanded rapidly over the last few years and have created new and varied channels of communication via internet, whether through personal computer or mobile phones. Many people are now members of social networking websites.
Cooke and Buckley, (2008) predict that the internet would be the marketing tactics of the future. Also, Cheong and Morrison, (2008) explain that with technology advances and the growth of digital media usage advertisers are seeking new ways to reach consumers. Advertisers spend over N304, 000,000,000,000 billion on social media advertising (marketer, 2009). Predictions indicates that advertisers may be spending almost #532,8064 12291382 trillion ($3.5b).
According to Wikipedia, (2011) the social network site is a social structure made up of individuals (or organizations) which are connected by one or more specific types of interdependency, such as friendship, kinship, common interest financial exchange or relationships of beliefs, knowledge or prestige.
However, according to Simmels, (2001) people have used the idea of “social network” loosely for over a century to connote complex sets of relationships between members of social systems at all scales, from interpersonal to international. The type of social network helps determine a network’s usefulness to its individuals.
According to shields and Maggie,(2011) Twitter is an online social networking service that enables its users to send and read text- based posts of up to 140 characters known as “tweets”. Twitter was created in 2006 by Jack Dorsey and launched in July of that year (Twitter search team, 2011).
Also, the Wikipedia (2011) narrates that twitter rapidly gained worldwide popularity, with 200million users as 2011, generating over 200million tweets and handling over 1.6billion search quarries per day. Twitter inc; the company that operates the service and associated website, is based in san Francisco, California, with additional servers and offices in san Antonio, Texas, Boston, and New York (Twitter.com(2010).
According to Twitter blog (2010) the tripping point for Twitter’s popularity was the 2007 south by south west festival in San Francisco, during the event, Twitter usage increased from 20,000 tweets per day to 60,000.
According to compete.com (2010) the company experienced rapid growth with 400,000 tweets posted per quarter in 2007. This grew to 100 million tweet posted per quarter in 2008. Johnson (2009) in February 2010, Twitter users were sending 50 million tweets per day. By March 2010, the company recorded 750 tweets sent each second.
However, Johnson (2009) described the basic mechanics of twitter as “remarkably simple”. He further added, as a social network, twitter revolves around its users.
A recent study by Evan shows that thirteen percent[13%]of Americans on the web used twitter, making it one of the most popular social networking service in the united states.
In many ways this social network site (twitter) continually provides social network for people at all ages. Twitter as a social network plays a role in communication throughout the world in the sense providing online services to share information with others and connect with them by creating a profile that may include a personal web page and a blog. It has been argued by Rosen (2010) that twitter affects behavior by causing psychological disorder via addiction to the access of the social network. Also twitter affects behavior because the network is open to all.
This study accordingly focuses on the effects of social network (twitter) on the behaviors of secondary school students in essence international secondary school, Kaduna.
This study is therefore interested in finding out how twitter as a social network is changing behavior of secondary school students at Essence international secondary school, Kaduna.
1.1. BRIEF HISTORY OF ESSENCE INTERNATIONAL SECONDARY SCHOOL
Essence international secondary school was founded in 1982; Essence began as a nursery school and expanded over the years to include all grades up to the final year of secondary school.
Essence international school is located in quiet corner of Kashir Ibrahim Road, in Kaduna, a beautiful and dynamic city in Northern Nigeria. The school is four-tier institution offering quality education in an educationally stimulating atmosphere for students in pre-nursery, nursery, primary and secondary.
The most recent dimension in Essence is the African heritage village which houses the play. Village and the bi-lingual primary school where the student learn in English and students learn in English and French. They also have an enhanced curriculum with a focus on African history, geography, and culture.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Twitter as a social network is not widely used among many of the student’s in Essence international secondary school, because the social site to them is not teen’s friendly but is rather a matured social networking, but it is not like face book. In fact, Twitter works quite differently from social networks: because instead of indicating a mutual relationship, twitter focuses on only one – way action, that means you want to receive information, in the form of tweets from someone (twitter help center, 2011). The students added that Twitter is more advanced in terms of language structure i.e. the complexity of the use of diction is quite different in twitter in the sense that you cannot abbreviate spellings anyhow as in the mobile phone text spelling; rather you spell out and construct standard grammar.
Face book is the social networking site that is mostly preferred by the students in the sense that face book
1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. Which is your favorite social networking site on the internet?
2. Why do you choose that social Networking site?
3. What do you use that social networking site for?
4. In what ways have the social networking site affected you?
5. Which groups of students at Essence international use twitter social Networking site?
6. Why do these groups of students use Twitter social Networking site?
7. Does using Twitter affects students at Essence international secondary school?
8. In what ways does using twitter social Networking site affects the students?
1.4 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
This study has eight purposes as follows:-
1. To find out the social Networking sites the students used.
2. To find out the students reasons for the choice of the social Networking sites.
3. To find out what the students use the social Networking sites for.
4. To find out the ways by which the social Networking site affects the students.
5. To find out the groups of students that uses Twitter as a social Networking site.
6. To find out why the groups uses Twitter social Networking site
7. To find out if using Twitter social Networking site affects the students.
8. To find out the ways by which the usage of Twitter social Networking site affects the students.
1.5 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
This study is significant to the teachers, parents and students. First of all, this study will help the teachers of the school to know the influence social networking site has on their students, so as to assist them to enlighten and create awareness to the students on the possible effect it has on them. Secondly, it is of significant to parents in the sense that they will know the possible effects these social networking sites usage has on their children, so as to serve as watch-dog to their children on the usage of the social networking site. Thirdly, it will enable the students of the senior level so that they will be aware that, apart from the social benefits of this social networking site, using the sites more than necessary will pose possible dangers to their health.
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study is limited to affects of Twitter social networking site on behavior of essence international secondary school Kaduna students; and of Twitter the students if focuses on what the students use social networking site for the groups of students that use Twitter social networking site; the ways the students that use Twitter and for what purposes. The target population focuses specifically the senior secondary school of the Essence international school, Kaduna.
Keywords: THE EFFECT OF TWITTER SOCIAL NETWORKING SITES ON THE BEHAVIOUR OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS