THE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIGH RATE OF MATERNAL MORTALITY IN BORNO STATE

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✎: THE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIGH RATE OF MATERNAL MORTALITY IN BORNO STATE

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Keywords: THE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIGH RATE OF MATERNAL MORTALITY IN BORNO STATE

 

RESEARCH BODY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.7     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

REFRENCE

APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

1.0            INTRODUCTION

1.1 BACKGROUND STUDY

Maternal mortality remains a serious concern in Nigeria, especially in the northern region and in the rural south. In 2005, the estimated total of global maternal deaths recorded was 536,000; developing countries, such as Nigeria, accounted for over 99 percent or 533,000 of the recorded deaths (WHO 2007). While having only 2 percent of the world’s total population, Nigeria accounted for 10 percent of the world’s total maternal deaths in 2010. Nigeria’s maternal mortality rate exceeds 1000 deaths per 100,000 live births and is much higher than the African continent average of 800 deaths per 100,000 live births (Zozulya, 2010). The WHO Factsheet (2008) indicates that globally, about 80 percent of maternal deaths are due to four major causes- severe bleeding, infections, hypertensive disorders in pregnancy (eclampsia) and obstructed labour.

Complications after unsafe abortion cause 13% of maternal deaths. Among the indirect causes of maternal death are diseases that complicate pregnancy or are aggravated by pregnancy, such as malaria, anaemia, hepatitis, anaesthetic death, meningitis, HIV/AIDS, sickle cell anaemia, anaemia and acute renal failure, which could be a complication of eclampsia. Women also die because of poor health at conception and a lack of adequate care needed for the healthy outcome of the pregnancy for themselves and their babies.

Omoruyi (2008) estimated that in Nigeria, more than 70 percent of maternal deaths could be attributed to five major complications: haemorrhage, infection, unsafe abortion, hypertensive disease of pregnancy and obstructed labour. Also, poor access to and utilization of quality reproductive health services contribute significantly to the high maternal mortality level in the country.

As explained in Mojekwu (2005) the causes of maternal deaths can be classified into medical factors, health factors, reproductive factors, unwanted pregnancy and socioeconomic factors. According to the author, medical factors include direct obstetric deaths, indirect obstetric deaths and unrelated deaths. Direct obstetric deaths result from complications of pregnancy, delivery or their management. Indirect obstetric deaths result from worsening of some existing conditions (such as hepatitis) by pregnancy. Health service factors include deficient medical treatment, mistaken or inadequate action by medical personnel, lack of essential supplies and trained personnel in medical facilities, lack of access to maternity services and lack of prenatal care. Other risk factors for maternal mortality in Nigeria include maternal age, illiteracy, non-utilization of antenatal services and grand multiparty (Ujah et al. 2005).

For women to benefit from these cost-effective interventions they must have antenatal care in pregnancy, in childbirth they must be attended by skilled health providers and they need support in the weeks after the delivery (WHO, 2008). Whereas in many developed countries almost all pregnant women receive antenatal and postnatal care and are attended by a midwife and/doctor at childbirth, available data show that less than two thirds receive similar services in developing countries. Many pregnant women in Nigeria do not receive the care they need either because there are no services where they live, or they cannot afford the services because they are too expensive or reaching them is too costly. Some women do not use services because they do not like how care is provided or because the health services are not delivering high-quality care. Further, cultural beliefs or a woman’s low status in society can prevent a pregnant woman from getting the care she needs. To improve maternal health, gaps in the capacity and quality of health systems and barriers to accessing health services must be identified and tackled at all levels, down to the community.

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

In spite of all the policies, declarations, conferences and other efforts aimed at reducing the scourge of maternal deaths across the globe, only modest gains in maternal mortality reduction appear to have been achieved in many countries in the past 20 years (Shah and Say, 2007). Countries in Africa may have actually lost ground while many developing countries have fallen far short of the standards set by the World Health Organization’s initiative on Safe Motherhood. In Nigeria, the Federal Ministry of Health had set Year 2006 as the target year that maternal mortality would have been reduced by 50 percent. However, not only were these targets not achieved but also the maternal health situation in Nigeria is now much worse than in previous years (Ujah et al, 2005).

Past efforts to reduce maternal mortality ratio in Nigeria were concentrated on making direct improvements to the health system. These efforts have not involved enough resources to successfully reduce maternal mortality in the country.

In view of this lack of success, Shiffman and Okonofua (2007) noted that the high maternal mortality in the country will have to be tackled by generating sufficient political priority to make governments deploy enough resources to successfully reduce maternal mortality in Nigeria.

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The general objective for this study is to examine the factors responsible for high rate of maternal mortality in Borno State. The specific objectives are:

1.     To find out the perception of pregnant women towards antenatal care in Borno State.

2.     To ascertain the influence of religious practices on the rate of maternal mortality among women in Borno State.

3.     To investigate the influence of poor medical facilities on the rate of maternal mortality in Borno State.

4.     To find out if pregnant women in Borno State prefers to give birth in their houses.

5.     To ascertain the relationship between poverty and the high rate of maternal mortality in Borno state.

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The relevant research questions related to the study are:

1.     What is the perception of pregnant women towards antenatal care in Borno State?

2.     What is the influence of religious practices on the rate of maternal mortality among women in Borno State?

3.     What is the influence of poor medical facilities on the rate of maternal mortality in Borno State?

4.     Do pregnant women in Borno State prefers to give birth in their houses?

5.     What is the relationship between poverty and the high rate of maternal mortality in Borno state?

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study is relevant to pregnant women on how to reduce the rate of maternal mortality among women in rural areas.  This study educates pregnant women on the relevance of antenatal care during pregnancy. The findings from this study are also relevant to the government in order to provide the necessary medical facilities for ensuring safe delivery among pregnant women.

This study will enhance the existing body of literature by contemplating the areas of the literature that have not yet been examined or considered and incorporating these factors into the current study. The study will thus form the basis for further studies in the field.

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The scope of this study is to examine the factors responsible for high rate of maternal mortality in Borno State.

1.7     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Some of the major constraints the researchers encountered in putting up this research include lack of time, lack of willingness to give information by respondent and also limited resources.

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

Antenatal care: is the routine health control of presumed healthy pregnant women without symptoms (screening), in

 

Keywords: THE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIGH RATE OF MATERNAL MORTALITY IN BORNO STATE

 


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Keywords: THE FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR HIGH RATE OF MATERNAL MORTALITY IN BORNO STATE

 


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