THE INFLUENCE OF POLITICS ON THE MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL IN NIGERIA

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✎: THE INFLUENCE OF POLITICS ON THE MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL IN NIGERIA

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Keywords: THE INFLUENCE OF POLITICS ON THE MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL IN NIGERIA

 

RESEARCH BODY

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE

1.0     INTRODUCTION

1.1     BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY

1.2     STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

1.3     OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

1.4     RESEARCH QUESTIONS

1.5     SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

1.6     SCOPE OF THE STUDY

1.7     LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

1.8     DEFINITION OF TERMS

CHAPTER TWO

2.0     LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1     CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION

2.1.1  CONCEPT OF MANAGEMENT

2.1.2  IMPLICATIONS OF THE IMPORTANCE OF EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

2.1.3  CONCEPT OF POLITICS

2.1.4  RATIONALE OF POLITICS IN EDUCATION

2.1.5  INFLUENCE OF POLITICS ON SECONDARY EDUCATION IN NIGERIA

2.1.6  POLITICS AND SCHOOL MANAGEMENT

2.1.7  PROBLEM ASSOCIATED WITH POLITICS ON SECONDARY SCHOOL ADMINISTRATION IN NIGERIA.

2.2     THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

2.2.1  THE HUMAN RELATION THEORY

2.2.2  THE SOCIAL SYSTEM THEORY

2.2.3  THE BEHAVIORAL THEORY

2.3     EMPIRICAL REVIEW

2.4     SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER THREE

3.0     RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     RESEARCH DESIGN

3.2     AREA OF STUDY

3.3     POPULATION OF THE STUDY

3.4     RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

3.5     INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION

3.6     VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT

3.7     METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION

3.8     METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0     DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0     SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1     SUMMARY

5.2     CONCLUSION

5.3     RECOMMENDATIONS

5.4     LIMITATION

5.5     SUGGESTION FOR FUTHER STUDY

REFRENCE

APPENDIX

CHAPTER ONE

1.0                                  INTRODUCTION

1.1              BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

The role of politics in the management of secondary schools in Nigeria is always affected by the government interference. This is because politics cannot be separated from school management. The objectives of education, the control, production, process variables, financial and accreditation system are tied inescapably to politics. The concept of politics has been well articulated by educators and social scientists including Ogbonnaya (2009), Okeke (2007) and Uchendu (1995). They all agree that politics is not restricted to political parties but is there in Nigeria banks, markets, and military establishments, commercial and industrial sectors of our economy and even in educational institutions. These experts have variously defined politics. Ogbonnaya (2009) sees it as a subject concerned with attracting, securing and maintaining the wellbeing of a community, state or nation. Okeke (2007) sees it as a device intended for finding solutions to social, economic, political and educational problems by political means. However, Uchendu (1995:2) on the other hand sees politics as the science and act of securing and advancing the temporal welfare of a community organized as a state. The business of politics, therefore, involves both the laying down of general principles and their application to concrete problems. The scope of politics is the temporal wellbeing of the community as a whole. These definitions imply that politics is concerned with attracting, securing and maintains the wellbeing of a community. The definitions also suggest that politics is an instrument for finding solutions to social, economic, scientific, technological and educational problems of a nation. The implication of all of the above is that politics is an unavoidable phenomenon in every society. Politics is all-embracing; it deals with power and power involves elements of decision making, allocating of resources, settlement of conflicts, provision of social amenities as well as the provision and management of education. Hence, no society can think about having an established government without politics. It is the interference of stakeholders including the government, community, members of the school board, school board of governors and the parent teachers association in the management of secondary schools in the southeast zone of Nigeria. Politics cannot be separated from secondary school management. The establishment of most secondary schools in the south-east states arose out of increase political awareness of the citizens of these states. It is for this reason that Okeke (2007) stated emphatically that politics plays an important role in decision making, control and governance of secondary schools. Furthermore, Okeke pointed out that politics in education can be looked at as a process of control, decision making, implementation, management, governance and a method by which resources are allocated to different ethnic groups to achieve their aims. The role of politics is heightened in view of the fact that an educational system has political goals and these goals are essential to justify the existence of the system and the political order of society. In other words, the political order initiates good education. It has been observed that politics is capable of having some influences in the management and policies that guide education. Politics may influence policies on funding, staff-personnel administration, provision of basic infrastructure\equipment and school-community relation (Ogbonnaya,2006).When the political influence is favorable to management and the development of education, it is regarded as positive but when the interference of government is inimical to the rules and regulations of the school management, it is negative because the state of objective of secondary education will not be achieved, therefore, teaching and learning will not be effective. Therefore, politics in the context of this study is a situation where political consideration is given preference rather than due process in which case the running of a school is influenced by the wishes of those in power rather than by established guidelines. In other words, it is a situation where due process is circumvented by pressure from groups of individuals in powerful positions. This undue influence results in school management deviating from normal or formal administrative principles and guidelines, hence, the management of secondary schools is influenced by government interference. Management has so many definitions and has been described in diverse ways. According to Peretomode (1999) management is a set of activities which can be classified as concerned with the process of planning, organizing, controlling, directing and staffing. All these are towards the achievement of the goals and objectives of the organization. Also, management is a way of guiding, leading and controlling the efforts of a group of people towards the realization of their common goals and objectives. (Ezeocha, 2009). Hence, in this context management is the use of materials and non-materials resources in an organization to achieve stated goals. In this present study schools are organized place with rules and regulation guiding the activities of what is going on in order to achieve the desired goals of education.

As government policy and practice, bureaucracy is unavoidable, of course. But the central flaw in the need for structure and hierarchy is that politics prefers leadership characteristics above expertise. As noted by Blasé & Blasé (2002) no politician can possibly have the expertise and experience needed in all the many areas a leader must address (notably in roles such as governor and president). But during the accountability era in education of the past three decades, the direct role of governors and presidents as related to education has increased dramatically – often with education as a central plan in their campaigns. One distinct flaw in that development according to Scribner, Aleman & Maxcy (2003) and Ijaduola, Odumade & Agbajeola (2009) has been a trickle – down effect reaching from presidents and governors to state superintendents of education and school board chairs and members; people who have no or very little experience or expertise as educators or scholars attain leadership positions responsible for forming and implementing education policy. In other words, the faces and voices currently leading the education reform movement in Nigeria are appointees and self-proclaimed reformers who, while often well-meaning, lack significant expertise or experience in education.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Politics can be a vital factor that influences decisions in the management of secondary schools in various situations. Since the government has taken over the control and management of secondary schools, political issues, societal interest and environmental influences on the management of secondary schools have come to the fore. Secondary education has a link with society; hence each segment of society tries to interfere with the management of secondary schools to suit their roles in the society. The belief that politics influences the allocation of funds, staff management, provision of basic infrastructure/equipment and school community relation is common among the people of South East of Nigeria. Political influences have positive and negative impact on teaching and learning in schools. In the society, it seems that the management of secondary schools is a fertile ground for politicking and politicians influence the management of secondary education while the principals, teachers, school board members and board of governors of each school obey them to a fault. This servile attitude makes it impossible for principals and teachers to stand their grounds to make demands for their salaries, allowances, promotions, car loans and conducive teaching environment. They embark on strike actions that often yield nothing worthwhile. Teachers, board of governors of schools, secondary school management boards, staff and principals observe that politics influence secondary school management in areas such as in transfer of teachers, promotion of principals, fund allocation, distribution of facilities, upgrading of schools and conduct of examinations. These observations have no empirical backing so far. Some secondary schools in the south east on Nigeria is known to 8 be doing well with good equipment and adequate infrastructure while others unfortunately suffer serious deprivations. Can the popular belief that there is a significant political interference in the running of secondary schools be substantiated? Although, there are a number of researches directed at politics and its consequences in relation to educational policies and National development, none so far has been specific on the perceived impact of politics and political parties on educational management as a benchmark for improvement. Hence, the main purpose of this what are the perceived impacts of politics on the management of secondary schools in Nigeria.

1.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

The main objective of the study is to investigate the influence of politics on the management of secondary school in Nigeria, specifically the study intends to:

1.     Find out the rate at which school managements personnel are involved in politics

2.     Investigate the influence of politics on the management of  politics on the management of public secondary school in Nigeria

3.     To find out the relationship between politics among the management personnel and the academic performance of the student.

1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The following questions will guide the researcher in order to achieve the stated specified objectives.

1.     At what rate do the school management personnel involves in politics?

2.     What influence does politics has on the management of public schools in Nigeria?

3.     Is there any significant relationship between politics am

 

Keywords: THE INFLUENCE OF POLITICS ON THE MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL IN NIGERIA

 


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Keywords: THE INFLUENCE OF POLITICS ON THE MANAGEMENT OF SECONDARY SCHOOL IN NIGERIA

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