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Keywords: THE INFLUENCES OF RELIGION AND OCCUPATION ON PERCEPTION OF FAMILY PLANNING
This study was conducted to determine the influence of religion and occupation of perception on family planning as well as knowledge about family planning and perception of people in Abeokuta North Local Government. Thus, the study adopted a descriptive survey design with the use of self designed questionnaire. The questionnaire as the main instrument used for the study was divided into two sections with which the section contained 20 structured items to elicit information on the influence of religion and occupation on the perception on family planning. The finding shows that singles and couples believes that the usage of family planning contraceptives can help in the home managing and reduction of large population in the home and nation at large. Equally, government should implement educative programmes on family planning and the various method or techniques to use in order to avoid unwanted or intended pregnancy, high rate of birth and high rates of deaths among mothers.
CHAPTER ONE 1.0 INTRODUCTION 1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Family planning refers to practices that help couples to avoid unwanted birth to regulate the interval between pregnancies and to determine the number of children in the family. It is also the family or the process of controlling the number of children you have by using contraception.
According to Bankole et al (2006), the role of contraception is to help women and men reconcile their sexual lives and their desire for children.
Tiakina (2007) believes family planning works to promote a positive view of sexuality and to enable people to make informed choices about their sexual and reproductive health and well-being. Also the World Health Organisation according to National Training method (2005) view family planning as a way of thinking and living that is adopted voluntary upon the basis of knowledge, attitudes and responsible decision by individual and couples in order to promotes health and welfare of the family group and this contribution affecting to the social development of the country.
Researchers have shown that family planning has been with us for a long time and the practices has had tremendously effort in the lives of family members and communities at large. This is traditional method.
Nnaocha (2002) observed that traditional ways to prevent pregnancy in olden days which is family planning includes prolong lactation, post-natal and sexual abstinence and polygamy that is husband pressure for later-course is reduced because of too many wives complimenting this national training Manuel (2005) noted that before the advert of scientific methods the forefathers were aware of the need for child spacing. This was done through traditional method which includes abstinence, pro-longed lactation, withdrawal method, charms/armlet and herbs.
Family planning could be influenced by a number of facts. In religious point of view, Ugoriji (2002) asserted that in the unbroken process of the development of human life from conception till death, each stage is as important as the other and has to be respected accordingly. To buttresses the Nnaocha (2002) believes that sexuality act or intercourse is hampered through contraception life will not be formed.
Contrary to this, the bible according to Christian’s journal awake does not condom birth control but the choice is left for the couples. If married couples decide to practice birth control, the choice of contraceptive is personal matter. However, the method of birth control a Christian couples chooses should be governed by a respect for the sanctity of life and since the bible indicates that a person’s life begins at conceptions Christians should avoid contraceptive methods that abort or end the life of the developing child (Holy bible Exodus 21 verse 22 and 23, Jeremiah 7 verse 6) muslims on the other hand believes that the prophets said they should give birth to the number of children they want as to increase the number of children birth to the number of children. They want as to increase the number of these followers. Effect of family planning methods and failure rates could frighten some married people frond considered its usage. Researches have indicated that there are two types of family planning as stated by Nnaocha (2002). These are natural and artificial planning methods. According to him, it is the only method that is universally accepted to Lahaya and Lahaya (1998). It is the least effect method. This method depends on controlling the days after menses and before the next one is expected in order to find out when women is fertile that is the duration of her fertility period. Contrary to the effect of the above method, bittaray method or ovulation mucus has no side effect if a woman is well trained according to Stay well foundation.
Withdrawal method is also a family planning method. In this method according to Muorah (1994) the male seed is ejaculated and the sperm is deposited outside the virginal. This is the commonest and the oldest method of contraception. At times the method may not be effective because the male does not always withdraw quickly.
In artificial family planning method, they are usually based on the use of chemical or physical drug or instrument. IPPFAR (1996) listed some form of artificial family planning which include male and female condom, Pitts, diaphragm, the sponge, spermicidal. Inject able, intra uterine device and striation among others reliable.
Male condom has no side effect as stated by stay well foundation resource but the effectiveness rate for men in 88-89 and 79-91% for women.
Similarly, Hewellyn Jones (1998) reported that the diaphragm is completely without side effect but the effectiveness rate is 94%. The pill is the most effective method of family planning to Lahaya and Lahaya (1998) and the effectiveness rate is 97% with side effect of weight gain, nausea and tumor of the liver. Significant proportion of material death in Nigeria is due to complication of unsafe and these abortion are response to unwanted pregnancies that could have been prevented by effective contraceptive programming.
Despite intense programmatic effort by the Nigeria government and various non-government agencies to reverse the trend there has been little evidence to suggest a systematic improvement in these indicators.
Available data indicates that Nigerians currently has one of the highest rate of material mobility in the world. It is also in evidence that 94% of these material death are due to complication of unsafe abortion and these abortions, are response to unwanted pregnancies that could have been prevented by effective contraceptive programming. Yet Nigerians contraceptive prevalence rate is 13%. The situation is further compounded by the persisting challenging of high fertility rate of about 5.8% and an annual growth rate of 2.8% in face of a large population size of about 140 million person primary prevention based on reducing the number of risk pregnancies through effective contraception, is an important approach to resolving the problems.
However, to date contraception has not been well consolidated in Nigeria, with the evidence from recent DHS data indicating that only about 13 percent of sexually active Nigeria women currently practice effective contraception part of the reason for the poor use of contraception in Nigeria include the persisting pro-annalist culture of contraceptive and women fear of contraception could lead to infertility in later life is one reason that Nigeria women have always proffered for not accepting effective contraceptive studies in Nigeria have reported that by the very way contraception is perceived, community involvement and participation is the gold standard to the ignition of an effective debate toward acceptance as seen with programmes aimed at reducing materials mortality. This is further buttressed by the fact that community practices and cultural beliefs
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The influences of religion and occupation on family planning have long been acknowledge as its goes against the effective of family planning due to its long side effect like death, hampered sexuality, unsafe abortion, low fertility and infertility among others.
Therefore, it is against the effect that this project want to critically examine the influence of religion and occupation on the perception of family planning.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The major purpose of this research is to study or identify the influence of religion and occupation on family planning among couples in Abeokuta North Local Government Area of Ogun State.
In this study, the researcher intend to:
(i) The meaning of family planning.
(ii) The meaning of religion and occupation.
(iii) Analyze the influence or religion and occupation on family planning in Abeokuta North.
(iv) To direct or re-direct their perception on family planning.
(v) What method could help most among those women?
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The research work will be of benefit to those who are interested in knowing the better method and how religion and occupation has immensely add to family planning and the medical improvement of life in general in-reference to Abeokuta North.
Family planning is when a couple consciously decide to begins a family. They will do some research maybe even have some counselling.
Both show both are in good physical condition by seeing their doctor. The study intend to find answer to the following hypothesis.
· Education and income levels are the factors influencing fertility pattern among the people of Abeokuta North.
· Ignorance and illiteracy are responsible for high fertility and population growth among the people of Abeokuta North dwellers.
· Poor quality services and lack of awareness are responsible for low level of contractive prevalence among the Abeokuta North dwellers.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
This research attempts to find answers to the following questions and other questions that may arise.
(1) How effective are family planning programmes in helping to reduce population growth.
(2) How does religion and occupation contribute to family planning?
(3) What are the causes of non-acceptance of family planning techniques?
(4) What are the perceptions of the couples on family planning?
(5) How has family planning helped in the population and economic growth in Abeokuta North?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
The study covers various aspect of religion and occupation which have their view of family planning and the various planning method in Abeokuta North.
The study will therefore be limited to couples in Abeokuta North namely Lafenwa axis, Ita Oshin and Iberekodo, etc.
The study has the following aims and objectives.
· To access the rate of family planning acceptance among Abeokuta North.
· To contributes to the development of knowledge in the area of family planning.
· The study is being scoped to focus purely on the acceptance of family planning among the people of Abeokuta North Local Government.
The study may encounter following limitation
· Inadequate financial resource to cater for the research monetary need.
· Fear of respondents in ability to objectively respond to the question administer to them.
· Bureaucratic bottleneck of pubic organisation in term of information collection which affect the research.
1.7 DEFINITION OF TERMS
The study intends to define the following term as follows:
Influence: The capacity to have an effect on the character development or something or the effect itself. A person or thing with the capacity to have an influence on someone, or something. Is the capacity or power of person on things to be a compelling force on or produces effect on the action opinion, etc of others. A person or things that exerts.
Religion: The belief in and worship of super human controlling power especially a personal God or gods. Religion is a set of variously organized belief about the relationship between natural and supernatural aspect of reality and the roles of humans in the relationship.
Occupation: Is a job or profession, the action state or period of occupying or being occupied by military force. Occupation may refer to job (roles) a regular activity performed for payment that occupies one’s time.
Perception: (From the Latin word perception, percipo) is the organisation, identification and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the environment.
Family: A basic social unit consisting parent and their children, considering as a group whether dwelling together or not. In human context, a family (from Latin familia) is a group of people affiliated by congruity (by recognized birth) affinity (by marriage) or co-residence/shared consumption.
Family planning: Is the planning of when to have children and the use of birth control and their techniques to implement such plans others techniques commonly used include sexuality education prevention and management of sexuality transmitted infections, pre-conception counselling and infertility management. Family planning services are defined as “education comprehensive medical or social activities which enables individuals, including minors to determine freely the number of child to bear.
Keywords: THE INFLUENCES OF RELIGION AND OCCUPATION ON PERCEPTION OF FAMILY PLANNING