This study, “THE PROBLEM OF DRUG ABUSE ON YOUTH DEVELOPMENT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA” contains concise information that will serve as a framework or guide for your project work. The project study is well-researched for academic purposes and are usually provided in complete chapters with adequate References.
Keywords: THE PROBLEM OF DRUG ABUSE ON YOUTH DEVELOPMENT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
1.4 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1.5 RESEARCH HYPOTHESIS
1.6 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
1.7 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
1.8 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY
1.9 DEFINITION OF TERMS
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 CONCEPTUAL CLARIFICATION
2.1.1 CONCPT OF DRUG ABUSE
2.1.2 CONCEPT OF ACAEMIC PERFORMANCE
2.1.3 CAUSES OF DRUG ABUSE
2.1.4 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF DRUG ABUSE
2.1.5 EFFECTS OF DRUG ABUSE AND ADDICTION ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS
2.1.6 REMEDY TO DRUG ABUSE
2.2 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.3 EMPIRICAL REVIEW
2.4 SUMMARY OF LITERATURE REVIEW
3.0 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
3.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
3.2 AREA OF STUDY
3.3 POPULATION OF THE STUDY
3.4 RESEARCH SAMPLE AND SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
3.5 INSTRUMENT FOR DATA COLLECTION
3.6 VALIDITY OF THE INSTRUMENT
3.7 METHOD OF DATA COLLECTION
3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS
4.0 DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATION
5.0 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION 5.1 SUMMARY
1.1 Background to the Study
The use of hard drugs by students in Nigerian universities has become an embarrassing phenomenon to parents, schools, government authorities, and the society at large. The students today are the leaders of tomorrow and they deserve good education in the right direction. The constant abuse of drugs among this group of persons can cause psycho-social problems in society. One may hope that this obnoxious practice and its associated problems would not lead to the breeding of deranged generation of youths. This fear is not unfounded because of what happens to be the frequent and rampant drug crises in many Nigerian universities Agbonghale and Okaka (2014)
Adolescence is a period of transition from childhood to adulthood and this critical developmental period is marked by several physical, psychological and social changes. Adolescents are a segment of population with age range between 14-25years. Most undergraduates in the university in Nigeria are usually within the adolescent age range of 14-25 years (OlugbengaBello; Adebinpe; Abodurin, 2009). Adolescence is a time of experimentation, exploration, curiosity and identity search. Part of such a quest involves some risk-taking, including the use and abuse of psychoactive substances, which are the drugs that exert their major effects on the brain resulting in sedation, stimulation or change in mood of an individual. Adolescents are faced with the huge task of establishing a sense of identity. The new cognitive skills of maturing adolescents give them the ability to reflect on who they are and what makes them unique. Identity is made up of two components, self-concept and self-esteem (American Psychological Association, 2002). Self-concept is a set of beliefs about oneself, including attributes, roles, goals, interests, values, religious and political beliefs, while self-esteem is how one feels about one’s self-concept. All of the developmental changes that adolescents experience prepare them to experiment with new behaviours. This experimentation results in risk-taking, which is a normal part of adolescent development (Sue, et al, 2009). Engaging in risk-taking behaviour helps adolescents to shape their identities, try out their new decision-making skills and gain peer acceptance and respect (Ponton, 2009).
The Nigerian National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) has stated that substance abuse is a major problem in schools, colleges and universities in Nigeria (NDLEA, 2013). Many of these students’ behaviors are heavily tied to the peer culture, as students learn from and imitate the peers they like and admire. Wanting to be attractive to others becomes very important in adolescence, and this factor is significant in the development of eating disorders, alcohol consumption, tobacco and drug use, tanning, not practicing safe sex, and vulnerability to injury, among other behavior. These adolescent who get involved in such risky behavior often have high levels of conflict with their parents and poor self-control, suggesting that they engage in such behavior to manage a stressful life. Adolescents who abused substances typically do more poorly in academics. Parents and peers influence adolescent drinking by influencing attitude about alcohol and by acting as role models (Taylor, 2003).On the other hand, parental deprivation due to deaths, divorces, separation or discord has also been strongly associated with drug abuse (Odejide, 1997). Most intuitively, alcohol and drug consumption may have some detrimental effects on pupils’ cognitive abilities, for instance, by decreasing their ability to concentrate. Concerning the indirect channels, drug and alcohol consumption may for instance be responsible for shifting individuals’ resources away from schooling. Additionally, it may undermine students’ progress by making them less likely to attend classes or keep up with their studies. Finally, psychologists argue that heavy drinking may lower individuals’ expectations about their academic performance (Deas et al, 2000). This effect could be driven by a shift in students’ peers when they engage in abusive alcohol consumption. Adolescent students discourteously depend on one form of drug or the other for their various daily activities such as social, educational, political, moral etc. such drug include tobacco, Indian hemp, cocaine , morphine, Heroine, Alcohol, Ephedrine, caffeine, Glue, Barbiturates etc. Oshikoya and Alli (2006) in their studies on perception of Drug Abuse amongst Nigerian undergraduates identified dependence and addiction as one of the major consequence of drug abuse, characterized by compulsive drug craving seeking behaviour, are use that persist even in the face of negative consequences. These changes are maladaptive and inappropriate to the social or environmental setting therefore may place the individual at risk of harm. Experiment with drugs during adolescence (11 – 25 years) is common. At this age, they use drugs for new things. They use drugs for many reasons including curiosity, because it feels good, to reduce stress, or to feel grown up. Using alcohol and tobacco at a young age increase the risk of using other drugs later.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The youths in Nigeria like many other countries of the world are developing addiction to psychoactive substances. In 2012, the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) collected drugs use and abuse data from schools, records of patients admitted at mental health institutions for drug related problems and interview of persons arrested for drug offences. The result showed that youths constitute the high risk group for drug trafficking and abuse. Friends and school mates account for about 90% of the source of influence of the use and abuse of various psychoactive substances. In Nigeria, alcohol and cigarette are legal but these substances have also said to be “gateway drugs” to other more potent drugs like heroin and cocaine. Drug abuse/addiction has gone a long way to create several health problems and dangers in our societies. Such health problems include mental illness, cancer of the lungs, school drop-outs, and juvenile delinquency.
Several school going adolescents experience mental health problem, either temporarily or for a long period of time. Some become insane, maladjusted to school situations and eventually drop out of school. the effects and consequences of substance abuse among students has called for concern and challenge to all helping professions to mount strategies of equipping youths with skills of living devoid of substance abuse, despite the effect of many concerned bodies to curb this menace, many firms and individuals still present these drugs as though they are harmless. They give them slogan such as “for greatness”, “for taste” etc which often lure irrational youths into drugs and alcoholism and long term effects of the abuse of drug on themselves, their families and the society at large. It is therefore the aim of this research to investigate the problem of drug abuse on youth development and academic performance in Nigeria.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to find out the problem of drug abuse on youth development and academic performance in Nigeria, specifically the study intends to;
1. Find out the factors that influence drug abuse among Nigerian youth
2. Analyze the effects of drug abuse among on academic performance of Nigerian youth
3. Find out the effect of drug abuse on youth development in Nigeria
4. Proffer solution to the problem of drug abuse in Nigeria
1.4 Research Question
1. What are the factors that influence drug abuse among Nigerian youth?
2. Is there any significant effects of drug abuse among on academic performance of Nigerian youth?
3. What is the effect of drug abuse on youth development in Nigeria?
4. What is the solution to the problem of drug abuse in Nigeria?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
Ho: there is no significant effects of drug abuse among on academic performance of Nigerian youth
Hi: there is significant effects of drug abuse among on academic performance of Nigerian youth
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research will benefit different people, organization, and government and other agencies especially the youth.
This study has important contribution to make in the education of drug abuse among our youths and society in general.
Drug abuse has lots of effects on the health of the nation. There is a danger of the waste of Nigeria’s next generation if the best Nigerian youth is consumed by an addiction that will leave effects on the economy.
The national security implication will be disastrous, hence the need for the media to intensity their role with various organization like the National Drug Law Enforcement Agency (NDLEA) and National Food and Drug Administration and Control (Nafdac) to combat this scourge in all its ramification.
Keywords: THE PROBLEM OF DRUG ABUSE ON YOUTH DEVELOPMENT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN NIGERIA