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Keywords: THE ROLE OF MARKETING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA
This topic “The role of marketing in the development of tourism in Nigeria using Nike lake Resort Enugu as a case study” was carried out to show how Nike lake resort provides satisfaction to customers through sales promotion as the role of marketing in the development of tourism. The research is an attempt to give a summary of this work, draw a vivid picture of what the research work is all about while at the same time highlight the purpose, methods and results of the study. The study was divided into first chapters. The purpose of the study covered specifically the following critical areas: determine how sales promotion contributed in the profit motive of the firm used as the case study, determines how customers were stimulated to patronize the hotel. Consequently, in order to ensure that the purpose for the study were achieved the researcher strategically adopted the tools outlined contribution to the findings. The techniques and tools employed were as follows. Sample survey preliminary test, source of data collection, sample size, research population and statistical analysis, All of which we discussed in chapter 3. The information gathered through the questionnaire distributed were used in data analysis in chapter four (4) of this study. In the data analysis, table and percentages were used for analyzing the questionnaires. In fact, hypothesis formulated in chapter four using chi-square (x2) technique. The purpose of which as that it provided accuracy and could be used for one or more variables the results of the hypothesis were summarized in chapter five (5) of this work. In conclusion therefore, it is worthy of note that the adoption of application of the above approaches and or techniques were with the sincere believe to providing an acceptable and reliable information for this research work which at the same time serves as a reference point for subsequent research studies in a related topic.
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
There is no gain saying the fact that the ultimate aim of every business undertaking is to maximize profit. Some organizations fail to recognize that satisfaction is synonymous with profitability. This means that until a consumer is satisfied with an offering, the organization has not achieved its profit goals.
In fact marketing as one of the management functions,,, has numerous contribution to make in tourism development.
Marketing is the management function which organization and directs all those business activities involved in assessing and converting customer purchasing power into effective demand for a specific product or services to the final consumer or use so as to achieve the profit target or other objectives set by the company, it was seated by British institution of marketing.
J. KRIPPERDORT (1979:35) defined marketing in tourism as the systematic and co-ordinate execution of business which by tourist undertaking to achieve optimal satisfaction of the need of identifiable consumer groups and in doing so to achieve appropriate profit for themselves.
The 7P’s Tourism
In any business there is the need to understand the marketing mix in order to be successful. Not to over emphasis on this 7P’s of tourism. This 7p’s examined the marketing mix of tourism, the product element, the price element, the promotion element, the place (destination) element, the people element, the process element and the physical evidence element.
These are applied to the package holiday sector of travel industries to illustrate the importance of each element. On this belief emphasis on 7P’s, Tourism which is defined as the practice of travelling for pleasure, especially during holidays and the business of providing holidays tours, hotels etc for tourist.
Tourism is also the sum of the phenomena and relationship arising from the travel and stay of non-residents and is not connected with any earning activity. Defined by 2 HANILIER and KRAFT
It is an industry, which is based in the visits made by people within and outside the country for the purpose of relaxation recreation and participation in non-routine activities.
The destinations of tourist center are often located outside where people live and work.
Tourism may also be domestic or international in domestic tourism people usually travel, outside their normal domicile to other areas within the country. It is international when it involves movement from separate national unit, which has its own political and economic system.
Some of the areas of interest in tourism includes the following;
1. THE MUSEUM: these are place where antiquities and historical monuments are kept the monuments depicts the cultural and historical background of a given society.
2. HOTEL AND OTHER ANCILIARY SECTORS: They provide accommodation, catering services, halls for meetings and seminars as well as other attractions.
3. AMUSEMENT PARKS GARDEN: There places are for relation and refreshment of the mind and brains, they also serve as centres of attraction for sightseeing.
4. GAME RESERVES: These are places where different wild life creations are viewed in their natural habits.
5. NATIONAL FEATURES: These refer to the vegetation scenery and the different land forms on the landscape.
They include caver, lakes etc, this sector of tourism is referred to as physical tourism. These include constitutional works like dams and some special architectural designs of building Tourism resources under these categories are generally classified into environmental social infrastructural and resources centres since they are features for human habitation.
TOURISM- THE NIGERIAN SITUATION
Nigeria is a nation, which has enormous human,. Cultural and environmental resources for tourism development. They include the Jos plateau, the Yankari game reserve, the Obudu cattle Ranch, Kamji Dam and lake, the Bar Beach in lagos, the Bonny Beach, Agulu lake in Anambra, Ogbunike cave in Anambra, the national war museum in umuahia, Igboukwu Bronze in Anambra, the Badagry slave market, wiki warm springs, national game reserve, Eko Tourist Beach. Resort and Nike lake resort in Enugu state.
Tourism is one of the industries which various government in Nigeria have tried to establish firmly in order to create employment opportunities for our citizens, attract foreign visitors and investors etc. it also serves as a unifying force among people if different racial backgrounds, generates foreign exchange earnings for economic development. These and other benefits account for the huge investment in the tourist industry.
Unfortunately, however there has not been any major break-through in the realization of the objectives of the governments. This is largely due to the fact that the governments view of the industry is very narrow and myopic, hence it has not been properly defined and planned.
The establishment of the Nigerian tourism Boards in 1976 and the subsequent promulgation of decree instituting the first National Park in the country in 1978, basic steps towards elevating tourism from its forgotten and retarded position in government development effort yet there is absence of a nation wide policy on tourism and parks in order to specify the roles and its forms of recreation in national park system.
The effort of Enugu state government to development tourism received a statutory blessing with the provision of decree 54 of 1976 which established the Nigeria tourist Board as an agency of the federal Government sector, seven of the decree required every state to set up tourism committees charge with the following functions.
1. To assist and advise the Nigeria tourism Board on the implementation of the decree 1 matters such as the provision and the improvement of tourist amenities on facilities including the development of hotels and other facilities.
2. To provide advisory and information service.
3. To grade and classify hotels.
4. To assist in the development of parks, historic cities, game reserve and beach natural beauty sports, holiday resort and so on.
5. To publicize tourism
Having identify tourism as an industry in our guest for development and having identified its products as museum, hotels amusement parks, Game reserves, nationals features etc the next problem then become how to reach the consumer with the product and whether the price affect the product quality.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The tourist industry had been identified as lucrative and viable investment. All government, private and public efforts to develop it have not yielded the desired result,
This is caused by a number of factors which includes:
a. Poor communication
b. lack of skilled personnel and managements.
c. Poor planting and lack of finance.
It is the researcher’s intention to ascertain to what extent the condition of tourism in Nigeria will be improved and developed by :
a. Exploring the role which marketing plays in its development and find out marketing problems in tourism.
b. Ascertaining the position of tourist industry in the economic development of the country.
c. Find out if there are qualified professional in the tourist industry.
d. Find out the problems encountered in running and maintaining tourist facilities in Nigeria.
e. Find out if the tourist industry applies the marketing concepts in the process of offering its product and services for attention.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
The purpose of the study include:
a. To identify what properties of tourist centres have not been doing to enhance tourism development.
b. To study marketing problems militating against tourism development in Nigeria, and make recommendations and how to improve on them.
c. To suggest solution that will improve tourism and guarantee its perpetual success.
d. To suggest ways of bringing their service to the consumers.
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The significance of this research cannot be over emphasized, it will defiantly be useful to the tourist industry. It will outline most of the problems that the tourist centre encounters in an attempt to realize their set objectives. It will also improve the service of the staff and help customers to appreciate the service rendered to the management.
The study will also help tourist centre which have been performing poorly to determine the reasonable and apply the suggestions made in this work to improve their profitability.
Financially, it will expose why all efforts to develop tourist have not been successful and thus help the government to take appropriate measure to achieve a reasonable result.
The result of this study is intended to help improve the marketing role in the development of tourism in Nigeria. It will also be useful to future student of marketing or any person who may use it as a reference while making a study on the topic or related topics.
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
Based on the purpose of the study, the following Research questions becomes relevant:
a. To what extent does sales promotion contributes to the development of tourism, customers’ satisfaction and organization profitability?
b. What is the place of marketing in tourism development?
c. Are there significant marketing oriented problem encountered in the tourist industry?
d.To what extent are there qualified personnel in the tourism development?
e. What are the problems militating against the management and maintenance of tourism facilities in Nigeria?
A hypothesis is a statement or assumptions about an unknown population parameter.
A test performs to verify whether a hypothesis is true or false is called a test of hypothesis. For the purpose of this study, I wish to hypothesize as follows:
Ho1: sales promotion do not contributes to the development of tourist, customer’s satisfactory and organization profitability.
Hi1: sales promotion contributes to the development of tourist, customer’s satisfactory and organization profitability.
Ho2: There are no significant marketing oriented problems encountered in tourism industry.
Hi2: There are significant marketing oriented problems encountered in tourism industry.
Ho3: None employment of qualified personnel in our tourist centre affect the development of tourism.
Hi3: None employment of qualified personnel in our tourist centre do not affect the development of tourism.
These hypotheses will be tested at the end of this study based on the analysis of the data obtained.
Firstly, the study will cover a general survey of tourism industries as a catalyst for economic growth in Nigeria. Secondly, it will x-ray the contents of tourism (the components of tourism industries.)
Thirdly, it will cover the factors that have enhanced or hindered the role of marketing in the development of tourism industries to grow and analysis how they have managed such issues in the past.
Finally, the area of interest will cover an appraisal of identify lapses association with the centre application of tourism system, contents shall also be made with other similar industries.
1.8 DEFINITION OF TERMS
TOURISM: this is denoted the temporary, short term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they live and work, and their activities during the stay at this destinations.
MARKETING: it can be seen as consisting of all profitable human activities undertaken by the firm towards the creation of satisfied customers.
MARKETING IN TOURISM: This is systematic and coordinated execution of business policy by tourist undertaking to achieve optimal benefit and satisfaction of the needs of potential and identifiable consumer groups and in other to achieve suitable profit for themselves.
CUSTOMER: Consumer is someone who buys goods and services from a shop/store.
CUSTOMER IN TOURISM: These are the potential human beings who are willing to undertake tourism, in other words those who are willing to buy the service of travelling,, sight seen and re-creations.
MUSEUM: This is a place in which objectives of artistic, cultural, historical or scientific interest are displayed. Is where antiquities and historical monuments are kept.
The monument depicts the cultural and historical background of a given society.
AMUSEMENT PARK: These places are relaxation and refreshment of the mind and brain, they help also serve as centre of attraction for sightseeing.
ADVERTISING: It can be defined as anything that can be offered to a market for attention, acquisition, use or consumption and which might satisfy a want or need.
SALES PROMOTION: It can be seen as an activity and/or material that acts as a direct inducement, offering added value or incentive for the product, to resellers salepersons or consumers.
MARKETING RESEARCH: This is referred as a planned collection, analysis and reporting of data for possible application to a specific marketing situation.
QUESTIONNAIRE: It can be seen as a set of relevant questions administered to respondents for answers. They are usually regarded as the most common tools for primary data collection, especially where the respondents to be studied are large.
CHI SQUARE (X2): x2 distribution is a statistical distribution that can be used to test if an observed series of data differs significantly from what was expected.
Keywords: THE ROLE OF MARKETING IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOURISM INDUSTRY IN NIGERIA