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Keywords: TRADITIONAL AND MODERN FAMILY PLANNING PRACTICE AMONG WOMAN IN ABEOKUTA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT
1.1 Background of the study
The 1988 population policy of Nigeria is presumably “predicted on the right of couples and individuals to decide fully the number and spacing of their children (Orubuloye, 2000).
However its goal of reducing birth rates and associated strategies address the basic question of population policy, which is how to give society the number of children they need. One of the strategies for achieving the goals of population policies is the development of family planning programmes (Ehrlich, 1995). This is through reliance on the diffusion of ideas which are believed to increasingly play a very important role in promoting contraception (Steele, 1996).
Nigeria, as a result of deepening economic crisis, succumbed to pressure to launch its first national population on policy in 1989. This policy was aimed at reducing the population growth rate through reducing fertility from six to four children per woman by the year 2000. Since the launching of the population policy , educational and family planning programmes aimed at providing education on population issues and making modern family planning methods readily accessible to all Nigerians, are reported to have been fairly successful.(Guilfoyle, 1992).
The issue of family planning all over the World has attracted attentions due to its importance in decision making about population growth and development issues. In this wise, Geographers have become increasingly alarmed by the precipitous rise in its effects on population growth, not only in Nigeria or the United States of America, but throughout the World (Okedare, 2000). Various works and researches have also been done on perceptions and attitudes of people on family planning, but major emphases had always been placed on the role of women and the female gender approaches in many cases.
For example Onokerhoraye (1997) gave detailed analyses of peoples’ perceptions on family planning in Nigeria. He examined a comparative analysis and peoples’ perspectives on health care facilities. In spite of the introduction of family planning services as means of curbing fertility rate, the population still rises because of the attitudes of the people involved. This is noticed especially in men and the role they play in reproduction. Hatcher et al. (1997) opined that family planning is now seen as human right basic to human dignity. People and governments around the world understand this. Their work further showed that family planning helps women protect themselves from unwanted pregnancies. Since the 1960s family planning programmes have helped women around the world avoid about 400 million unwanted pregnancies. As a result, many women’s lives have been saved from high-risk pregnancies and unsafe abortions (Hatcher et al., 1997: Huezo and Carignam, 1997). However, most available works still point to emphasis being placed on the women fold at the detriment of the male counterpart. (Olawepo, 2003).
In line with the postulates of the Central Place Theory, health and family planning facilities can be conceived as constituting a hierarchical system (Shanmon and Dever,1994; Okafor. 2000) with secondary health and family planning facilities occupying an intermediate position. As it is often assumed in the cultural ethics in Nigeria, a large proportion of the men folks feel less concerned about family planning. However, the emergence of responsible parenthood, and the need to protect men folk’s sexuality have improved this awareness among them.
It is apparent to have a worldwide view about a problem and to come out with a generalization that will point towards an applauding solution. Many times this view or intended solution can be acceptable worldwide. However, there are a lot of shortcoming that negate such a generalization when it comes to the developing world especially in locations with appropriate traditional, cultural and ethical differences like the Nigerian environment (Olawepo, 1998). In recent years, the government of Nigeria has intensified efforts to educate the generality of her population on the need for reproductive health in general and responsible parenthood in particular. Various States of the Federation have variability in the extent of the success of such programmes, especially when it comes to the women folk and child related issues. (Okafor, 2000).
Family planning has proved to be an effective way of controlling fertility and spacing births (Prata, 2007). The purpose of this review is to assess the benefits of family planning internationally, nationally, and at a state level. Online databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles on family planning. The Louisiana Office of Public Health was contacted for information, as well. It was found that there is a great lack of family planning resources for the poor in developing countries (Cleland, et al, 2006). Though the United States does not lack of resources to the extent of developing countries, it is still true that those who are the poorest often have the greatest barriers to reliable contraceptive methods (Gold, et al., 2009). Additionally, states play a large role in providing and advocating for funding for reproductive health (Guttmacher Institute, 2006). Though once strongly advocated for, family planning has decreased in efforts even though it is proven to benefit the health of women, children, and families everywhere. Whether examining international, national, or local populations, it seems clear that family planning remains a much sought after need and essential resource for reducing infant and maternal mortality, teenage pregnancy, prevalence and spread of STDs and HIV, poverty, overpopulation, and healthcare costs. Current developments in advocating for increased family planning assets worldwide include promotion of family planning and recommendations for a change in family planning targets, leadership, and program designs.
1.1 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY
Family planning is spacing of child’s birth for the health and welfare of mother, children and the whole family. It helps family to have the number of children they desire. It promotes the health of the mother and child and allows more opportunities to educate the children.
According to International Encyclopedia of the Social Science (2010), family planning is a term created in the mid-twentieth century to refer to the ability to control reproduction through access to contraception, abortion and sterilization, in addition to access to information and education.
Reductive control allows a women to determine when and whether she will have children. A woman’s ability to control the birth and spacing of the children has a direct impact on woman’s enjoyment of heterosexual activity that can be affected by the time she become pregnant if she lacks information about or access to contraception and abortion is a debate or absolutes, prolife and pro-choice forces will confirm to be engaged in this issue.
The convert realization that socio-economic development and well being of a society can be affected by astronomical increase in population has led to the establishment of family planning programmes. Family planning is a way of living that is adopted voluntarily upon the basis of knowledge, attitudes and responsible decision making by individuals or couples in order to pin the number, timing and spacing of the children they want, so as to promote the health and welfare of the family group and contribute to the advancement of the society.
Basically, there are two major methods of family planning the traditional and modern methods. Attempts to control increase in population started from the early men. Therefore, birth control is as old as man himself. Evidence from medical history indicated that our forefathers did space theirchildren through traditional means. Delamo (2010) has observed that traditional methods of family planning has been handed down either verbally or in writing from generation to generation as far back as the stone age.
Before the introduction of modern family planning methods, Africans had methods of fertility regulation. Nigerian culture includes many myths, rituals and the use of herbs in attempts to regulate women’s fertility. Although many of these traditional methods of family planning have no harmful effects on a woman’s health, some however, do have dangerous or counterproductive effects. (Adediran, 2009).
The rapid population growth made Nigerian former President Babangida ruled that each woman should have only four children. Consequently the mass media started awareness campaigns on the consequences of having many children. Family planning clinics were also established in government owned hospital especially in urban areas of the country. This however, did not achieve much result due to cultural and religious inclinations of the multivarious ethnic groups that make up Nigeria. Report from Okediji (2003) however showed that women want to have fewer children than they actually have. In other words, women are more receptive of family planning than their male counterparts. Since they are in the burden of child bearing and rearing with the attendant house chores and probable break down in health.
This reports runs contrary to Morgan’s (2003) view that modern family planning methods are effective and more reliable. Morgan grouped them into the appliance, non appliances and include the intra-uterine contraceptive (IUCD) made of polythene, metal or nylon device of different shapes or coils, condom is another appliance method. Miller and Brunt (2001) revealed that many literate couples prefer the use of condom for convenience besides the fact that it also offers some degree of protection against sexually transmitted infections (STIs).
The non-appliance methods includes the rhythm or natural method of family planning and the pills. The rhythm method also referred to as billing circulation period method or safe period by Mac Sweeney (2004), is based on the woman’s ability to recognize her ovulation period and avoid sexual intercourse two days before and three days after due to the assumption that the ovum (female gamete) is capable of being fertilized only twenty four hours after its release.
1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Report of earlier researches have shown more adherences to traditional methods of family planning among the respondents inspite of the fact that the modern methods have been adjudged effective and reliable. Besides, education has been to influence choice of contraceptive method, we still find out that most people in Nigeria are not still making use of modern family planning or the two family planning method due to their religious and cultural beliefs.
1.3 PURPOSE OF THE STUDY
i. To examine the reliability between traditional and modern family planning methods.
ii. To examine the family planning method and contraceptive use by people in this area
iii. To determine the reasons behind peoples refusal to make use of family planning and contraceptive methods.
iv. To find out the sources of procurement in making use of family planning methods.
v. To determine the influence of education on the use of family planning methods
1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY
The finding of the study will be beneficial to the women and the government. The women will be made more aware of modern family planning methods and their health will be improved as they utilize these facilities. This study will also enlighten the government agencies that iniatiate, finance, and control all family planning programmes on the need to target both married and unmarried rural dwellers
1.5 RESEARCH QUESTIONS
1. What are the reliability between traditional and modern family planning methods?
2. What are the family planning methods used by the people in Abeokuta North local government?
3. What are the reasons behind peoples refusal to make use of the modern family planning?
4. What are the sources of procurement in making use of any of the family planning methods?
5. What is the influence of education on the usage of family planning methods?
1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY
This study will be limited to some selected women in Abeokuta North local government area of Ogun State to evaluate the traditional and modern family planning practices among women.
1.7 LIMITATION OF THE STUDY
The study of nature cannot be completed without the researcher experiencing some constraints. The first major limitation of the study experienced by the researcher was insufficient time. This is due to the fact that both academic course work and the study were taking place simultaneously.
Another was the lack of sufficient data and information on the traditional family planning methods which most people in Abeokuta North local government made use of.
1.8 OPERATIONAL DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. Family planning: This is the spacing of child birth for the health and welfare of mother, children and the whole family.
2. Abortion: is the deliberate termination of an established pregnancy.
3. Birthcontrol: birth control refers to the means used to limit or space human fertility
4. Contraception: This is the means through child birth are controlled to reduced population density
5. Sexually transmitted infections: These are infections that are contacted through unsafe sexually intercourse between a male and female.
Keywords: TRADITIONAL AND MODERN FAMILY PLANNING PRACTICE AMONG WOMAN IN ABEOKUTA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT
TRADITIONAL AND MODERN FAMILY PLANNING PRACTICE AMONG WOMAN IN ABEOKUTA NORTH LOCAL GOVERNMENT