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Keywords: TRADITIONAL MUSIC IN NIGERIA, A CASE STUDY OF GELEDE MUSIC
This project examines the songs used in performing Gelede music of the Igbo-Ora people a community in Oyo State this traditional work will identity some traditional music used in performing Gelede, the functions of such music, the role and the kind of dance performance that accompany it.
TABLE OF CONTENT
1.1 Background to the Study
Traditional music is that type of music which is created entirely from traditional elements and has no stylistic affinity with western music. Representatives of such traditional music are Apala, Sakara, Waka and Fuji (Euba 1988:126).
Traditional music in many ways represents continuity with the past and giver opportunity of learning in order that the present may be better understood (Euba 1969:476). Therefore, music can be said to form on integral part of life in Africa, it follows the African through his entire day from early in the morning till late of night and through all the changes of his life from the time he came in to this world until after he was left it.
Again, A.O. Olagunju (1997) in “Orin as a means of expressing world views among the Yoruba views music from another perspective. He grouped Yoruba traditional music into two; religious music and secular music. The writer believes music function in the social structure in four principal ways as religious rituals, social organisation, as recreation and as a means of expressing world view.
Again (Akin Euba 1969:476) in Essays on music Africa, (Volume One) discusses the interrelationship between music and religion in Yoruba society. He stresses the importance of religion in Yoruba society and gives an account of some divinities and the type of music each of them enjoys. Euba shed light on the roles music plays in Yoruba society particularly in the royal courts. He concluded by discussing some poplar Nigerian music and encouraged Nigerian musicians to do better in contributing to world development (Euba, 1988). While S.O. Olusoji in Nigerian Dances for Piano (Volume One) gives concise background to some Nigerian traditional music such as Waka, Sakara, Fuji, Juju and so on. A brief biography of the pioneers of those traditional musicians was also examined. The writer highlights the themes and instruments used and also score some of this music on piano. Again Euba (1988) in music traditional society reviewed the present state of music in Nigeria by discussing the music of Nigerian traditions.
He stresses the influence of Arabic and Europeans on Nigerian traditional music (Euba, 1969). Interestingly, (O.G, Olatogun 19870 in music and unity examined different unifying factors and usage of music. He discusses the role of music education in national unity, in sport and in mass media. The writer also view its usage in areas such as religion and festivals, and concludes by suggesting some efforts that need to be made to further enhance unification role of music in the country for a more dynamic and United Nation (Olatokun 2000). Also, T. Ajirire and W. Alabi in Three Decade of Nigerian music (1960-1990). Discuss a wide range of most popular music in Nigeria which includes, Afro beat, Juju, Pop, Apala, Reggae, Fuji, Gospel, Kalangu, High life, Folks, Sakara and Waka. Each chapter of the book was devoted to a particular type of music. Chapter four was dedicated to Apala music with Haruna Shola’s autobiography opening the chapter. The chapter also talked about the style of Ayinla Omowura’s Apala music and its uniqueness (Ajirire and Alabi, 1992). While, Ajetunmobi et al (eds), in Haruna Ishola, The life and Time of Baba Ngani Agba, examined the biography of the late Haruba Ishola, how he started his musical career, his family background and the formation of his Apala group. The book most importantly talked extensively on his form of Apala music, its origin and significance, characteristics, growth of Apala music and about all, the major function of Apala music in the Nigerian society. The writer also examined his legally and the future of Apala music (Ajetunmobi et al, 2009). It is true that these authors have through their works, significantly contributed towards knowledge yet, they have not been able to particularly enlighten and educate the society on the other. Roles or functions of traditional music aside entertainment, and the roles musicians play as agents of social change. Thus this study aims to shed more light on other major and important roles which traditional music plays and how upcoming generations would benefit tremendously. It is also expected to add the vista of knowledge.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
In traditional society, there is no universal language of music in Nigeria that is each tribe has a musical language of its own (Euba; 1969: 476) hence the three largest ethnic groups in Nigeria namely Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba each have a music language peculiar to each. The Hausa type of traditional music is the royal music of the emirs palace or court. An examples is the ceremonial music called “rok on pada” it is performed regularly in front of the emirs palace (Omojola 1995:3). Igbo traditional music is strongly tied to extra musical events which provide a means of expressing group solidarity and beliefs from one generation to another. An example of traditional music in Igbo land includes these that accompany initiation rites into the masquerade cult (Omojola 1995-4). While the Yoruba word “Orin” (music) Embraces? All forms of traditional music in Yoruba culture.
Yoruba traditional music consists of both instrumental and vocal music. In other words, when the Yoruba speak of “music” in its totality it involves drumming, singing and dancing (Olagunju 1997). Quite a number of the traditional music mentioned have here been documented some cultural music had been documented from Igbo-Ora such as Kete music. This project is aimed at documenting Gelede music as a traditional music from Igbo-Ora community.
1.3 Need for the Study
This study is specifically designed to highlight traditional music in Nigeria using Igbo-Ora community as a case study.
The need for this study arose as a result of the necessity to document traditional music. The documentation will be source material for teaching and learning African music in schools.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
The general objective for this study arose as a result of the necessity to document traditional music. The specific objective of this study is to document traditional music of Igbo-Ora community in Oyo State, Nigeria.
1.5 Research Questions
The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.
1. What is traditional music?
2. Does traditional music exist in Igbo-Ora?
3. What are the socio-economic importance of traditional music to Igbo-Ora community?
4. What values can be deducted from traditional music of Igbo-Ora?
5. What types of traditional music exist in Igbo-Ora?
6. What instrumental ensembles are employed in the traditional music of Igbo-Ora?
7. Can music samples be documented from traditional music from Igbo-Ora?
8. What are the factors militating against traditional music in Igbo-Ora Society?
1.6 Significance of the Study
Traditional music with roots in indigenous music such as Apala, Waka, Sakara and Fuji tracents ethnicity, religion, geography gender, age and socio-economic considerations which also met the needs of individual communities in term of entertainment.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study will be limited to Igbo-Ora Community the respondents for the study will consist of the inhabitants of the community.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Traditional: Traditional is a way of beliefs customs of lite of a particular groups of people that have not changed for a long time.
Music: Music as a sounds that are arrange in a way that is pleasant or exciting to listen to music is an art of combination in a manner that is pleasant to the eat (Euba 1965). For this study music implies the traditional way of making sound both vocal and instrumental which is acceptable to the people of Igbo-Ora community of Oyo State.
Traditional Music: Traditional music is that type of music which is created entirely from traditional elements and has no stylistic affinity with Westerner music are Apala, Sakara, Waka and Fuji (Euba 1988:128). Traditional music in many ways, represents continuity of the past and gives opportunity of learning in order that the present may be better understood (Euba 1969:475).
Keywords: TRADITIONAL MUSIC IN NIGERIA, A CASE STUDY OF GELEDE MUSIC
TRADITIONAL MUSIC IN NIGERIA, A CASE STUDY OF GELEDE MUSIC